dream is today's reality: we now have our Uhuru. We will guard Uhuru
with all our might."
Prime Minister of Kenya, 1964
The colonies and dominions once controlled by European nations gained
their independence starting in 1947, with India and Pakistan. In
1957, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast) was the first African colony
to achieve independence. Others in Africa and Asia followed rapidly
over the next few decades.
The euphoria of independence quickly gave way to the sobering reality
of the obstacles ahead. For many developing countries, independence
brought civil war and economic chaos. Most developed "dual economies"
- the majority of their people continued to live in poverty, while
some urban, industrial areas achieved rapid economic growth.
am sure that every one of us will celebrate Independence Day with
great joy. We are celebrating a victory. Yet it is essential that
we remember even on that day that what we have won is the right
to work for ourselves, the right to design and build our own future."
Julius K. Nyerere
President of Tanganyka (now Tanzania), 1962