A number of technical standards or guidelines for data
presentation and fiscal management procedures relevant to
fiscal transparency are being developed by various
The Manual discusses their linkage to the Code.
The appropriate standard
should be consulted in implementing the related aspect
of the Code. This
provides a brief overview of these standards. Web site
addresses, where available, are given in the text and
included in the list of web site addresses below.
- International accounting standards for the
public sector are being developed by the Public
Sector Committee (PSC) of the International
Federation of Accountants (IFAC).
- Data dissemination standards have been
established by the IMF. The SDDS sets standards
for providing economic and financial data to the
public for member countries operating in
international financial markets; the GDDS aims
more generally to improve data quality among Fund
- Fiscal reporting standards are included in
the IMF's Manual of Government Finance
Statistics (GFS), which is currently in the
process of being revised and brought into line
with other standards for economic and financial
statistics and developments in government
- Internal accounting control guidelines
have been issued by the International
Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions
(INTOSAI). They define standards for achieving
effective internal controls.
- International standards for government
auditing are set by INTOSAI to provide a
basis for assuring reasonable standards of
practice in the accounts of government and
government agency accounts.
- Fundamental principles of official statistics
have been promulgated by the United Nations
Statistical Commission to help assure the
integrity of official statistics.
Standards or guidelines are also being developed in a
number of other areas linked more indirectly to fiscal
transparency, such as the work of Basle Committee on
Banking Supervision, that of the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on government
regulation, and the United Nation's International Code of
Conduct for Public Officials.
Web Site Addresses
Budget Papers: http://www.budget.gov.au/finaloutcome/
Basle Committee on Banking Supervision: http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs30a.htm.
Tax Expenditures and Evaluations 2000: http://www.fin.gc.ca/toce/2000/taxexp_e.html.
Customs Cooperation Council: Declaration of the World Customs Organization:
European System of Accounts (ESA95)
Procurement Directives: http://formby.wiganmbc.gov.uk/pub/bsu/eudirect.htm
Home Page of the Hungarian Government: http://www.meh.hu/default.htm
Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies—Declaration
of Principles: http://www.imf.org/external/np/mae/mft/index.htm.
Hong Kong, SAR:http://www.imf.org/external/np/rosc/hkg/index.htm.
Korea, Republic of: http://www.imf.org/external/np/rosc/kor/index.htm.
Standards and Codes
Toward a Framework for Assessing Data Quality: http://dsbb.imf.org/Applications/web/dqrs/dqrswork/.
Government Financial Reporting: http://www.ifac.org/Guidance/Pub-Download.tmpl?PubID=960182179426
Code of Ethics for Auditors in the Public Sector: http://www.intosai.org/3_ETHICe.html.
Guidelines on Best Practice for the Audit of Privatizations:
Lima Declaration of Guidelines on Auditing Precepts: http://www.intosai.org/2_LIMADe.html.
OECD/PUMA: OECD Best Practices for Budget Transparency
Institute for Democracy in South Africa: http://www.idasa.org.za
Taxpayer Advocate Service
Classification of the Functions of Government: http://esa.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regrt.asp.
Commission on International Trade Law: Model Law on Procurement of Goods,
Construction, and Services: http://www.uncitral.org/english/texts/procurem/proc93.htm
Common Code of Statistical Practice: http://www.un.org/Depts/unsd/demotss/tcnjun96/tony.htm
International Code of Conduct for Public Officials:
Statistical Division: http://www.un.org/Depts/unsd/statcom/1994docs/e1994.htm.
Budget of the United States: http://w3.access.gpo.gov/usbudget/fy2001/maindown.html.
Congressional Budget Office: http://www.cbo.gov
Federal Accounting Advisory Board: http://www.fasab.gov/
World Trade Organization:
Government Procurement Agreement: http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/final_e.htm