John Ralyea is a Senior Economist in the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department. Previously, he worked in the IMF’s European department, with stints on the Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain teams, and in the Finance department. He has conducted research related to fiscal risks including state-owned enterprises, public pensions, and fiscal rules. Prior to joining the IMF, John worked for the U.S. Treasury Department. He holds a Masters degree from the John Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. In another life, John was a Certified Public Accountant.