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Macro Research for Development: An IMF-DFID Collaboration

Topic 7. Gender and Macroeconomics

Last Updated: July 28, 2017

Much progress has been made over the past several decades in reducing gender gaps across a wide range of economic, social, and political indicators in all regions of the globe. For instance, gender gaps in primary education have largely been closed, and globally, there are now more females than males enrolled in tertiary education. However, significant inequalities remain, and the macroeconomic consequences are clear-eliminating gender inequalities can lead to faster economic growth, increased female labor force participation, and better health outcomes for women and children.

Our research agenda on gender and macroeconomics covers several key areas, with the overall objective to place gender more squarely in the forefront of IMF policy-oriented research. Research currently underway focuses on:

  • Surveying gender budgeting initiatives as a tool for reducing gender inequality.
  • Quantifying the extent to which restrictions to women's economic rights impede sectoral shifts and diversification, and thus growth.
  • Examining the relationship between gender inequality and growth.

Research on Gender Budgeting

The IMF-DFID team has conducted the first-ever global review of policymakers’ use of tax and spending policies to promote gender equality and released an online database toolkit of gender equality indicators worldwide. The project outlines the economic rationale for gender budgeting—the use of fiscal policy and administration to promote gender equality and girls’ and women’s development. An overview highlights successful gender budgeting practices, summarizes key country case studies, and offers fiscal policy implications. Six regional country surveys present case studies for countries where gender budgeting was undertaken. The online toolkit includes data on gender budgeting efforts around the world along with two time-consistent indices of gender equality, spanning 1990–2013.


Working Papers

Gender Budgeting:


Selected Issues Papers


Conferences and Seminars