World Economic Outlook Database, October 2012

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5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects

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       Shaded cells indicate IMF staff estimates
CountrySubject DescriptorUnitsScaleCountry/Series-specific Notes2008200920102011201220132014201520162017
BrazilGross domestic product, current pricesNational currencyBillionsSource: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: SNA 1993
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 1998
Chain-weighted: No
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/20123032,2033239,4043770,0854143,0134455,9784888,1065361,5425859,1026397,2906986,834
BrazilPopulationPersonsMillionsSource: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2010
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/2012189,613191,481193,253194,933196,526198,043199,492201,123202,768204,425
BrazilGeneral government structural balanceNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Notes: General Government data refers to the non-financial public sector, which includes the federal, state and local governments as well as public enterprises. Revenue and expenditures of federal public enterprises are added in full to the respective aggregates
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the projection is based on the budget, subsequent updates to plans announced by the authorities and the fiscal outturn up to July 2012. In this and outer years, the IMF staff assumes adherence to the announced primary surplus target and further increases in public investment in line with the authorities’ intentions.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001. No separate info in capital revenue is available, hence the GFSM 2001 adjustments could not be made to total revenue may still include capital revenue and net acquisition of nonfinancial assets may not be net of capital revenue.
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Monetary Public Corporations, incl. central bank;Nonfinancial Public Corporation;Social Security Funds;State Government
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/2012-61,358-85,409-141,006-136,296-109,217-65,856-102,754-111,765-117,619-122,150
BrazilGeneral government structural balancePercent of potential GDP See notes for: 
General government structural balance (National currency).-2,066-2,582-3,799-3,317-2,424-1,339-1,912-1,908-1,839-1,748
BrazilGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Notes: General Government data refers to the non-financial public sector, which includes the federal, state and local governments as well as public enterprises. Revenue and expenditures of federal public enterprises are added in full to the respective aggregates
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the projection is based on the budget, subsequent updates to plans announced by the authorities and the fiscal outturn up to July 2012. In this and outer years, the IMF staff assumes adherence to the announced primary surplus target and further increases in public investment in line with the authorities’ intentions.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001. No separate info in capital revenue is available, hence the GFSM 2001 adjustments could not be made to total revenue may still include capital revenue and net acquisition of nonfinancial assets may not be net of capital revenue.
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Monetary Public Corporations, incl. central bank;Nonfinancial Public Corporation;Social Security Funds;State Government
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/20121926,7972167,8562456,3542690,6302855,1472990,0903159,0273355,9813521,2183772,283
BrazilGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).63,54466,92165,15464,94464,07561,17158,92057,27855,04253,991
ChinaGross domestic product, current pricesNational currencyBillionsSource: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: SNA 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices. Production-based measure
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 1990. China GDP deflator does not equal 100 in the base year. This is due to the fact that, in the base year, there is a discrepancy between production-based and expenditure-based nominal GDP series. Reported NGDP series are production-based, while NGDP_R series are estimated using expenditure based nominal GDP in the base year and contributions to growth in subsequent years.
Chain-weighted: No
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/201231404,54334090,28140151,28047156,36952183,69157870,45064274,36971531,43779499,47288247,638
ChinaPopulationPersonsMillionsSource: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/20121328,0201334,5001340,9101347,3501353,8211360,3231366,8561373,4211380,0171386,645
ChinaGeneral government structural balanceNational currencyBillionsSource: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the government is assumed to slow the pace of fiscal consolidation; the fiscal impulse is assumed to be neutral.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 1986
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/2012-121,277-839,944-293,425-8,36923,840119,310213,618399,256550,098671,126
ChinaGeneral government structural balancePercent of potential GDP See notes for: 
General government structural balance (National currency).-0,379-2,393-0,704-0,0170,0430,1960,3190,5420,6810,761
ChinaGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the government is assumed to slow the pace of fiscal consolidation; the fiscal impulse is assumed to be neutral.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 1986
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/20125327,1546023,76813465,76212186,71811563,18111323,53711103,24310696,05610025,9938945,497
ChinaGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).16,96317,67033,53825,84322,15919,56717,27514,95312,61110,137
IndiaGross domestic product, current pricesNational currencyBillionsSource: IMF Staff. The original data is in calendar years from 1997. Prior to 1997, IMF staff converted fiscal-year data to calendar years by taking 3/4 data of  year t and 1/4 data of year t+1 as data for calendar year t. Moreover, since quarterly data do not add up to the annual data adjustments are made to the quarterly data, hence they differ slightly from the official figures.
Latest actual data: 2011. Official data for the latest year are advanced estimates. Data available on quarter-by-quarter basis.
National accounts manual used: SNA 1993
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2004/05
Chain-weighted: No
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/201254955,86561306,79575052,60486464,99397699,841112654,324130133,639149281,954170901,823195761,919
IndiaPopulationPersonsMillionsSource: Haver, IMF staff converted fiscal-year data to calendar years by taking 3/4 data of  year t and 1/4 data of year t+1 as data for calendar year t.
Latest actual data: 2010
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/20121158,0001174,0001190,5241206,9171223,1701239,2611255,5651272,0831288,8181305,774
IndiaGeneral government structural balanceNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance. and IMF staff calculations
Latest actual data: 2011. State Level data arrive with significantly longer lag than Central data.
Fiscal assumptions: Historical data are based on budgetary execution data. Projections are based on available information on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general government data are thus finalized well after central government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, particularly regarding divestment and license auction proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in certain minor categories, and some public sector lending.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December. The original data from the authority is on FY (Apr/Mar) basis. IMF staff converted to CY (Jan/Dec) basis.
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Authorities debt figures often
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/2012-5764,913-6623,908-7616,422-8491,398-9926,883-10800,623-12274,937-13755,381-15483,578-12716,352
IndiaGeneral government structural balancePercent of potential GDP See notes for: 
General government structural balance (National currency).-10,563-10,731-10,219-9,939-10,175-9,559-9,433-9,214-9,060-6,496
IndiaGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance. and IMF staff calculations
Latest actual data: 2011. State Level data arrive with significantly longer lag than Central data.
Fiscal assumptions: Historical data are based on budgetary execution data. Projections are based on available information on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general government data are thus finalized well after central government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, particularly regarding divestment and license auction proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in certain minor categories, and some public sector lending.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December. The original data from the authority is on FY (Apr/Mar) basis. IMF staff converted to CY (Jan/Dec) basis.
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Authorities debt figures often
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/201240702,42745518,22651067,23057932,69866032,65275104,25485420,65797249,802110637,640125901,088
IndiaGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).74,06474,24768,04267,00167,58766,66865,64165,14564,73864,313
JapanGross domestic product, current pricesNational currencyBillionsSource: Global Insight and Nomura database.
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: SNA 1993
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2005
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012501209,300471138,600481784,500468191,100474558,638475829,897487747,847497604,734506900,924515797,999
JapanPopulationPersonsMillionsSource: Global Insight and Nomura database.
Latest actual data: 2011. Actual surveys are taken every 5 years with the latest one being in 2010.
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012128,065128,051128,048127,896127,611127,341127,061126,729126,345125,909
JapanGeneral government structural balanceNational currencyBillionsSource: Cabinet Office of Japan
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including consumption tax increases and earthquake reconstruction spending. The medium-term projections assume that expenditure and revenue of the general government are adjusted in line with current underlying demographic and economic trends.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Gross public debt includes equity shares.
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012-17794,691-37526,290-39228,986-40246,551-44044,906-41701,444-34023,633-31109,407-28936,809-30028,888
JapanGeneral government structural balancePercent of potential GDP See notes for: 
General government structural balance (National currency).-3,504-7,408-7,896-8,254-9,075-8,636-6,914-6,229-5,703-5,823
JapanGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: Cabinet Office of Japan
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including consumption tax increases and earthquake reconstruction spending. The medium-term projections assume that expenditure and revenue of the general government are adjusted in line with current underlying demographic and economic trends.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Gross public debt includes equity shares.
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012961380,300990554,0001037243,1001075015,4771122634,3861165707,5701200629,0021232132,2391261173,2831291186,964
JapanGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).191,812210,247215,292229,610236,564244,984246,158247,613248,801250,328
RussiaGross domestic product, current pricesNational currencyBillionsSource: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
Notes: Gross capital formation includes statistical discrepancy.
GDP valuation: Market prices
Base year: 2008. Reference year for the chain-linking is 2003. The data are derived by re-referencing the chained level series to 2009.
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1995
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/201241276,80038808,70045166,00054369,10060846,22567541,42574323,60481944,89190637,919100315,400
RussiaPopulationPersonsMillionsSource: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/2012141,900141,900142,900142,411141,924141,439140,955140,473139,944139,418
RussiaGeneral government structural balanceNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2012–14 are based on the non-oil deficit in percent of GDP implied by the 2012–14 medium-term budget, the 2012 supplemental budget, and the IMF staff's revenue projections. The IMF staff assumes an unchanged non-oil federal government balance in percent of GDP during 2015–17.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/20121546,416-1314,005-861,7271101,750252,522-92,188-595,615-1400,808-2406,165-3504,243
RussiaGeneral government structural balancePercent of potential GDP See notes for: 
General government structural balance (National currency).3,872-3,155-1,8312,0010,416-0,138-0,806-1,712-2,658-3,493
RussiaGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2012–14 are based on the non-oil deficit in percent of GDP implied by the 2012–14 medium-term budget, the 2012 supplemental budget, and the IMF staff's revenue projections. The IMF staff assumes an unchanged non-oil federal government balance in percent of GDP during 2015–17.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/20123250,8004399,9005337,6746503,2386708,6196656,1058046,5689394,78211760,01012961,318
RussiaGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).7,87611,33711,81811,96111,0269,85510,82611,46512,97512,921
SwitzerlandGross domestic product, current pricesNational currencyBillionsSource: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: ESA 1995
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2005
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/2012567,852554,372574,314586,784592,938604,563621,844639,933658,548678,037
SwitzerlandPopulationPersonsMillionsSource: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/20127,5937,7857,8707,9548,0028,0508,0988,1478,1968,245
SwitzerlandGeneral government structural balanceNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2011–17 are based on IMF staff calculations, which incorporate measures to restore balance in the federal accounts and strengthen social security finances.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/20126,3904,6950,3791,0363,2233,9065,6885,7795,6215,452
SwitzerlandGeneral government structural balancePercent of potential GDP See notes for: 
General government structural balance (National currency).1,1530,8390,0660,1780,5430,6430,9110,9010,8530,804
SwitzerlandGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2011–17 are based on IMF staff calculations, which incorporate measures to restore balance in the federal accounts and strengthen social security finances.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/2012286,521287,209275,899274,773276,940275,389271,164272,852278,255283,817
SwitzerlandGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).50,45751,80848,04046,82746,70645,55243,60642,63842,25341,859
United StatesGross domestic product, current pricesNational currencyBillionsSource: Haver Analytics
Latest actual data: 2011
GDP valuation: Real Gross Domestic Product determined by chained Fisher quantity growth rates.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2005
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/201214291,55013973,65014498,92515075,67515653,36616197,95616912,54017768,39718717,04519745,323
United StatesPopulationPersonsMillionsSource: Haver Analytics
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/2012304,718307,374309,732311,946314,311317,256320,285323,343326,431329,547
United StatesGeneral government structural balanceNational currencyBillionsSource: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2010
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are compiled according to the GFSM2001 methodology. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the March 2012 Congressional Budget Office baseline, adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. The key near-term policy assumptions include an extension of all the Bush tax cuts and emergency unemployment benefits into 2013 and replacement of automatic spending cuts (“sequestration”) with back-loaded consolidation measures. Over the medium term, the IMF staff assumes that Congress will continue to make regular adjustments to the Alternative Minimum Tax parameters and Medicare payments (“Doc Fix”) and will extend certain traditional programs (such as the research and development tax credit). It is assumed that the Bush tax cuts for the middle class will be extended permanently, but those for high-income taxpayers will be allowed to expire in 2014 (one year later than planned by the administration). The fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts of key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of the financial sector support and are converted to the general government basis.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/2012-797,476-1237,910-1321,415-1246,036-1109,556-925,194-730,010-654,377-745,592-835,627
United StatesGeneral government structural balancePercent of potential GDP See notes for: 
General government structural balance (National currency).-5,528-8,366-8,706-7,903-6,801-5,485-4,179-3,603-3,938-4,223
United StatesGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2010
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are compiled according to the GFSM2001 methodology. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the March 2012 Congressional Budget Office baseline, adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. The key near-term policy assumptions include an extension of all the Bush tax cuts and emergency unemployment benefits into 2013 and replacement of automatic spending cuts (“sequestration”) with back-loaded consolidation measures. Over the medium term, the IMF staff assumes that Congress will continue to make regular adjustments to the Alternative Minimum Tax parameters and Medicare payments (“Doc Fix”) and will extend certain traditional programs (such as the research and development tax credit). It is assumed that the Bush tax cuts for the middle class will be extended permanently, but those for high-income taxpayers will be allowed to expire in 2014 (one year later than planned by the administration). The fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts of key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of the financial sector support and are converted to the general government basis.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/201210881,08912528,12514298,36415517,37216777,31918097,06519249,54520288,77921373,27322512,648
United StatesGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).76,13789,65598,617102,930107,180111,724113,818114,185114,191114,015
Notes
  Country/Series-specific Notes  
  Brazil: Gross domestic product, current prices (National currency)
Source: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: SNA 1993
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 1998
Chain-weighted: No
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/2012


Brazil: Population (Persons)
Source: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2010
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/2012


Brazil: General government structural balance (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Notes: General Government data refers to the non-financial public sector, which includes the federal, state and local governments as well as public enterprises. Revenue and expenditures of federal public enterprises are added in full to the respective aggregates
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the projection is based on the budget, subsequent updates to plans announced by the authorities and the fiscal outturn up to July 2012. In this and outer years, the IMF staff assumes adherence to the announced primary surplus target and further increases in public investment in line with the authorities’ intentions.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001. No separate info in capital revenue is available, hence the GFSM 2001 adjustments could not be made to total revenue may still include capital revenue and net acquisition of nonfinancial assets may not be net of capital revenue.
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Monetary Public Corporations, incl. central bank;Nonfinancial Public Corporation;Social Security Funds;State Government
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/2012


Brazil: General government structural balance (Percent of potential GDP)
See notes for:
General government structural balance (National currency).


Brazil: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Notes: General Government data refers to the non-financial public sector, which includes the federal, state and local governments as well as public enterprises. Revenue and expenditures of federal public enterprises are added in full to the respective aggregates
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the projection is based on the budget, subsequent updates to plans announced by the authorities and the fiscal outturn up to July 2012. In this and outer years, the IMF staff assumes adherence to the announced primary surplus target and further increases in public investment in line with the authorities’ intentions.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001. No separate info in capital revenue is available, hence the GFSM 2001 adjustments could not be made to total revenue may still include capital revenue and net acquisition of nonfinancial assets may not be net of capital revenue.
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Monetary Public Corporations, incl. central bank;Nonfinancial Public Corporation;Social Security Funds;State Government
Primary domestic currency: Brazilian reais
Data last updated: 09/2012


Brazil: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


China: Gross domestic product, current prices (National currency)
Source: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: SNA 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices. Production-based measure
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 1990. China GDP deflator does not equal 100 in the base year. This is due to the fact that, in the base year, there is a discrepancy between production-based and expenditure-based nominal GDP series. Reported NGDP series are production-based, while NGDP_R series are estimated using expenditure based nominal GDP in the base year and contributions to growth in subsequent years.
Chain-weighted: No
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/2012


China: Population (Persons)
Source: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/2012


China: General government structural balance (National currency)
Source: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the government is assumed to slow the pace of fiscal consolidation; the fiscal impulse is assumed to be neutral.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 1986
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/2012


China: General government structural balance (Percent of potential GDP)
See notes for:
General government structural balance (National currency).


China: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: CEIC
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: For 2012, the government is assumed to slow the pace of fiscal consolidation; the fiscal impulse is assumed to be neutral.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 1986
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Primary domestic currency: Chinese yuan
Data last updated: 09/2012


China: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


India: Gross domestic product, current prices (National currency)
Source: IMF Staff. The original data is in calendar years from 1997. Prior to 1997, IMF staff converted fiscal-year data to calendar years by taking 3/4 data of year t and 1/4 data of year t+1 as data for calendar year t. Moreover, since quarterly data do not add up to the annual data adjustments are made to the quarterly data, hence they differ slightly from the official figures.
Latest actual data: 2011. Official data for the latest year are advanced estimates. Data available on quarter-by-quarter basis.
National accounts manual used: SNA 1993
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2004/05
Chain-weighted: No
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/2012


India: Population (Persons)
Source: Haver, IMF staff converted fiscal-year data to calendar years by taking 3/4 data of year t and 1/4 data of year t+1 as data for calendar year t.
Latest actual data: 2010
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/2012


India: General government structural balance (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance. and IMF staff calculations
Latest actual data: 2011. State Level data arrive with significantly longer lag than Central data.
Fiscal assumptions: Historical data are based on budgetary execution data. Projections are based on available information on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general government data are thus finalized well after central government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, particularly regarding divestment and license auction proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in certain minor categories, and some public sector lending.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December. The original data from the authority is on FY (Apr/Mar) basis. IMF staff converted to CY (Jan/Dec) basis.
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Authorities debt figures often
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/2012


India: General government structural balance (Percent of potential GDP)
See notes for:
General government structural balance (National currency).


India: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance. and IMF staff calculations
Latest actual data: 2011. State Level data arrive with significantly longer lag than Central data.
Fiscal assumptions: Historical data are based on budgetary execution data. Projections are based on available information on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general government data are thus finalized well after central government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, particularly regarding divestment and license auction proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in certain minor categories, and some public sector lending.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December. The original data from the authority is on FY (Apr/Mar) basis. IMF staff converted to CY (Jan/Dec) basis.
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Authorities debt figures often
Primary domestic currency: Indian rupees
Data last updated: 09/2012


India: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


Japan: Gross domestic product, current prices (National currency)
Source: Global Insight and Nomura database.
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: SNA 1993
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2005
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012


Japan: Population (Persons)
Source: Global Insight and Nomura database.
Latest actual data: 2011. Actual surveys are taken every 5 years with the latest one being in 2010.
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012


Japan: General government structural balance (National currency)
Source: Cabinet Office of Japan
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including consumption tax increases and earthquake reconstruction spending. The medium-term projections assume that expenditure and revenue of the general government are adjusted in line with current underlying demographic and economic trends.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Gross public debt includes equity shares.
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012


Japan: General government structural balance (Percent of potential GDP)
See notes for:
General government structural balance (National currency).


Japan: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: Cabinet Office of Japan
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including consumption tax increases and earthquake reconstruction spending. The medium-term projections assume that expenditure and revenue of the general government are adjusted in line with current underlying demographic and economic trends.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Gross public debt includes equity shares.
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 09/2012


Japan: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


Russia: Gross domestic product, current prices (National currency)
Source: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
Notes: Gross capital formation includes statistical discrepancy.
GDP valuation: Market prices
Base year: 2008. Reference year for the chain-linking is 2003. The data are derived by re-referencing the chained level series to 2009.
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1995
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/2012


Russia: Population (Persons)
Source: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/2012


Russia: General government structural balance (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2012–14 are based on the non-oil deficit in percent of GDP implied by the 2012–14 medium-term budget, the 2012 supplemental budget, and the IMF staff's revenue projections. The IMF staff assumes an unchanged non-oil federal government balance in percent of GDP during 2015–17.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/2012


Russia: General government structural balance (Percent of potential GDP)
See notes for:
General government structural balance (National currency).


Russia: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2011
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2012–14 are based on the non-oil deficit in percent of GDP implied by the 2012–14 medium-term budget, the 2012 supplemental budget, and the IMF staff's revenue projections. The IMF staff assumes an unchanged non-oil federal government balance in percent of GDP during 2015–17.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Primary domestic currency: Russian rubles
Data last updated: 09/2012


Russia: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


Switzerland: Gross domestic product, current prices (National currency)
Source: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
National accounts manual used: ESA 1995
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2005
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/2012


Switzerland: Population (Persons)
Source: National Statistical Office
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/2012


Switzerland: General government structural balance (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2011–17 are based on IMF staff calculations, which incorporate measures to restore balance in the federal accounts and strengthen social security finances.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/2012


Switzerland: General government structural balance (Percent of potential GDP)
See notes for:
General government structural balance (National currency).


Switzerland: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2010
Fiscal assumptions: Projections for 2011–17 are based on IMF staff calculations, which incorporate measures to restore balance in the federal accounts and strengthen social security finances.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: Swiss francs
Data last updated: 09/2012


Switzerland: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


United States: Gross domestic product, current prices (National currency)
Source: Haver Analytics
Latest actual data: 2011
GDP valuation: Real Gross Domestic Product determined by chained Fisher quantity growth rates.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2005
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/2012


United States: Population (Persons)
Source: Haver Analytics
Latest actual data: 2011
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/2012


United States: General government structural balance (National currency)
Source: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2010
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are compiled according to the GFSM2001 methodology. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the March 2012 Congressional Budget Office baseline, adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. The key near-term policy assumptions include an extension of all the Bush tax cuts and emergency unemployment benefits into 2013 and replacement of automatic spending cuts (“sequestration”) with back-loaded consolidation measures. Over the medium term, the IMF staff assumes that Congress will continue to make regular adjustments to the Alternative Minimum Tax parameters and Medicare payments (“Doc Fix”) and will extend certain traditional programs (such as the research and development tax credit). It is assumed that the Bush tax cuts for the middle class will be extended permanently, but those for high-income taxpayers will be allowed to expire in 2014 (one year later than planned by the administration). The fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts of key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of the financial sector support and are converted to the general government basis.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/2012


United States: General government structural balance (Percent of potential GDP)
See notes for:
General government structural balance (National currency).


United States: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2010
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are compiled according to the GFSM2001 methodology. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the March 2012 Congressional Budget Office baseline, adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. The key near-term policy assumptions include an extension of all the Bush tax cuts and emergency unemployment benefits into 2013 and replacement of automatic spending cuts (“sequestration”) with back-loaded consolidation measures. Over the medium term, the IMF staff assumes that Congress will continue to make regular adjustments to the Alternative Minimum Tax parameters and Medicare payments (“Doc Fix”) and will extend certain traditional programs (such as the research and development tax credit). It is assumed that the Bush tax cuts for the middle class will be extended permanently, but those for high-income taxpayers will be allowed to expire in 2014 (one year later than planned by the administration). The fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts of key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of the financial sector support and are converted to the general government basis.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: 2001
Basis of recording: Noncash (accrual)
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;State Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollars
Data last updated: 09/2012


United States: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


 
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