World Economic Outlook Database, April 2018

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5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects

You will find notes on the data and options to download the table below your results.
       Shaded cells indicate IMF staff estimates
CountrySubject DescriptorUnitsScaleCountry/Series-specific Notes19801981198219831984198519861987198819891990199119921993199419951996199719981999200020012002200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020202120222023
JapanGeneral government net debtNational currencyBillionsSource: Cabinet Office of Japan via Haver database.
Latest actual data: 2016. Authorities release fiscal data with a 10 month delay.
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including the consumption tax hike in October 2019.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;. Government in Japan consists of 3 layers: central, prefectural, and municipal. The latter two government levels are covered under local government. There is no government at the state level in Japan.
Valuation of public debt: Current market value. Gross public debt is on unconsolidated basis.
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Securities Other than Shares;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Other Accounts Receivable/Payable;Monetary Gold and SDRs;Other
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 03/201844,619.10057,895.00073,262.90090,702.100103,728.200114,955.000130,735.300126,283.100114,126.90096,077.10088,110.30084,994.20097,774.900119,404.100152,256.900194,023.200219,997.500244,278.600291,979.900334,443.500356,565.600392,370.200441,574.300471,490.500495,752.000505,003.700502,707.700518,820.000564,944.000600,843.500655,787.600699,968.000726,341.400736,427.700763,177.800785,279.900823,011.500836,347.208847,912.457854,722.383859,138.705865,117.241871,105.649876,299.286
JapanGeneral government net debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government net debt (National currency).17.80221.53625.92630.71533.12534.45037.31634.47228.99322.79619.42417.60319.75024.10830.35837.85541.84045.73355.31264.35967.69775.02285.57991.48095.16096.35095.41297.580108.494122.746131.065142.441146.748146.356148.514147.613152.850153.040152.610150.834148.948148.082147.364146.298
JapanGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: Cabinet Office of Japan via Haver database.
Latest actual data: 2016. Authorities release fiscal data with a 10 month delay.
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including the consumption tax hike in October 2019.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;. Government in Japan consists of 3 layers: central, prefectural, and municipal. The latter two government levels are covered under local government. There is no government at the state level in Japan.
Valuation of public debt: Current market value. Gross public debt is on unconsolidated basis.
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Securities Other than Shares;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Other Accounts Receivable/Payable;Monetary Gold and SDRs;Other
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 03/2018122,341.900145,038.300166,617.300191,704.600209,705.200232,523.500264,667.000283,065.900288,184.900281,739.700291,689.200306,569.400336,606.400367,463.700426,269.000491,515.800531,245.900569,804.900622,583.400681,369.500726,279.700767,939.000809,191.300838,714.900894,288.300926,580.200929,338.400932,720.300955,074.500984,109.0001,039,993.4001,091,354.4001,133,490.4001,169,727.8001,213,100.8001,230,274.8001,268,721.4001,291,834.1431,310,999.6881,327,024.8501,339,893.9821,352,049.7951,363,795.3281,375,537.287
JapanGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).48.81353.95258.96264.91866.96769.68375.54577.26973.21066.84764.30463.49267.99474.19184.99295.898101.034106.677117.941131.120137.891146.832156.824162.731171.660176.783176.385175.426183.416201.043207.852222.087229.008232.469236.069231.261235.627236.388235.958234.182232.296231.429230.712229.646
United StatesGeneral government net debtNational currencyBillionsSource: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2017
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the June 2017 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. Projections incorporate the effects of tax reform (Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, signed into law end-2017) as well as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 passed in February 2018 . Finally, fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Data is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;Local Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Financial Derivatives;Monetary Gold and SDRs
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollar
Data last updated: 03/2018n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a3,587.1323,991.3454,495.4895,833.5346,058.2016,208.2996,482.3967,595.5199,045.50110,484.00711,873.19712,997.81313,565.66614,074.73714,587.39815,170.58315,952.18616,615.34317,715.44918,775.28919,884.25821,039.17322,127.410
United StatesGeneral government net debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government net debt (National currency).n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a33.77136.35939.05547.52446.26844.80644.77551.60562.73470.06076.51380.45681.27380.76180.50181.45582.26881.39682.74384.43786.28588.44890.181
United StatesGeneral government gross debtNational currencyBillionsSource: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2017
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the June 2017 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. Projections incorporate the effects of tax reform (Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, signed into law end-2017) as well as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 passed in February 2018 . Finally, fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Data is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;Local Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Financial Derivatives;Monetary Gold and SDRs
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollar
Data last updated: 03/2018n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a5,631.8986,079.2176,722.3718,076.9728,542.2868,879.5179,356.57010,851.08412,541.30514,316.02315,512.75816,726.41217,592.69618,311.89619,080.13919,959.11420,900.08122,050.22023,432.93824,740.33726,067.82627,409.89428,676.164
United StatesGeneral government gross debtPercent of GDP See notes for: 
General government gross debt (National currency).n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a53.02255.37958.40165.80165.24064.08564.62873.72486.97995.66799.967103.535105.399105.074105.295107.166107.785108.021109.447111.264113.118115.230116.870
Notes
  Country/Series-specific Notes  
  Japan: General government net debt (National currency)
Source: Cabinet Office of Japan via Haver database.
Latest actual data: 2016. Authorities release fiscal data with a 10 month delay.
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including the consumption tax hike in October 2019.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;. Government in Japan consists of 3 layers: central, prefectural, and municipal. The latter two government levels are covered under local government. There is no government at the state level in Japan.
Valuation of public debt: Current market value. Gross public debt is on unconsolidated basis.
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Securities Other than Shares;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Other Accounts Receivable/Payable;Monetary Gold and SDRs;Other
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 03/2018


Japan: General government net debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government net debt (National currency).


Japan: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: Cabinet Office of Japan via Haver database.
Latest actual data: 2016. Authorities release fiscal data with a 10 month delay.
Fiscal assumptions: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including the consumption tax hike in October 2019.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;Local Government;Social Security Funds;. Government in Japan consists of 3 layers: central, prefectural, and municipal. The latter two government levels are covered under local government. There is no government at the state level in Japan.
Valuation of public debt: Current market value. Gross public debt is on unconsolidated basis.
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Securities Other than Shares;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Other Accounts Receivable/Payable;Monetary Gold and SDRs;Other
Primary domestic currency: Japanese yen
Data last updated: 03/2018


Japan: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


United States: General government net debt (National currency)
Source: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2017
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the June 2017 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. Projections incorporate the effects of tax reform (Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, signed into law end-2017) as well as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 passed in February 2018 . Finally, fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Data is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;Local Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Financial Derivatives;Monetary Gold and SDRs
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollar
Data last updated: 03/2018


United States: General government net debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government net debt (National currency).


United States: General government gross debt (National currency)
Source: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2017
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the June 2017 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. Projections incorporate the effects of tax reform (Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, signed into law end-2017) as well as the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 passed in February 2018 . Finally, fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Data is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government;State Government;Local Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits;Loans;Insurance Technical Reserves;Financial Derivatives;Monetary Gold and SDRs
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollar
Data last updated: 03/2018


United States: General government gross debt (Percent of GDP)
See notes for:
General government gross debt (National currency).


 
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