World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020

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       Shaded cells indicate IMF staff estimates
CountrySubject DescriptorUnitsScaleCountry/Series-specific Notes20142015201620172018201920202021
AustriaGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19950.6611.0152.0832.4762.4201.585-6.9974.510
AustriaUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/20205.6085.7426.0335.5174.8834.5175.5005.000
AustriaGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on data from Statistics Austria, the authorities’ projections, and IMF staff estimates and projections.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans;;. Our framework follows the Maastricht debt criteria.-2.729-1.046-1.574-0.6990.1980.443-7.095-1.562
AustriaCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)2.4741.7252.7271.5522.3292.6141.8981.979
Czech RepublicGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2010
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19952.7155.3092.4514.3532.8462.566-6.5007.501
Czech RepublicUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: Haver Analytics
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Czech koruna
Data last updated: 04/20206.0975.0403.9462.8902.2432.0017.5006.000
Czech RepublicGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable.
Fiscal assumptions: Projections are based on the Convergence Program and latest-available Fiscal Outlook with adjustments for macroeconomic projections from the IMF staff.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans; Shares and Other Equity; Insurance Technical Reserves; Financial Derivatives-2.099-0.6150.7191.5680.8910.272-4.726-1.717
Czech RepublicCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)0.1830.2451.5571.6540.292-0.015-2.057-0.860
DenmarkGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: ESA 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2010
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19801.6162.3433.2482.0372.3892.367-6.5006.000
DenmarkUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: Eurostat
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Danish krone
Data last updated: 04/20206.8676.2836.0175.8175.0835.0336.5006.025
DenmarkGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable
Fiscal assumptions: Estimates for 2019 are aligned with the latest official budget numbers, adjusted where appropriate for the IMF staff’s macroeconomic assumptions. For 2020, the projections incorporate key features of the medium-term fiscal plan as embodied in the authorities’ latest budget.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Nominal Value debt valuation is consistent with Eurostat's definition
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans;. Subtracted items include Currency and Deposits, Securities Other than Shares, Loans and Other Financial Assets.1.144-1.330-0.1061.5200.4772.496-7.036-0.254
DenmarkCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)8.9248.2457.7747.7557.0297.8604.8135.282
GermanyGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data until 1990 refers to German federation only (West Germany). National accounts data until 1990 do not include FISIM. Data from 1991 refer to United Germany and include FISIM.
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1991. From 1991.2.2181.7422.2302.4651.5220.565-6.9525.151
GermanyUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data until 1990 refers to German federation only (West Germany). Data from 1991 refer to United Germany.
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/20205.0084.6254.1583.7583.4003.1583.8863.452
GermanyGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office. Data of general government gross debt comes from EUROSTAT
Latest actual data: 2019. The latest actual data of general government debt is 2019.
Fiscal assumptions: The IMF staff’s projections for 2020 and beyond are based on the 2020 draft budgetary plan and data updates from the national statistical agency and ministry of finance, adjusted for the differences in the IMF staff's macroeconomic framework and assumptions concerning revenue elasticities.  The estimate of gross debt includes portfolios of impaired assets and noncore business transferred to institutions that are winding up, as well as other financial sector and EU support operations.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;. other refers to special funds
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans0.5800.9431.1841.2421.8671.449-5.523-1.193
GermanyCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: Central Bank. Additional source: IMF Statistics Department
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data until 1990 refers to German federation only (West Germany). Data from 1991 refer to United Germany.
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)7.2048.5908.5097.8247.3977.1466.5806.662
IsraelGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008. The System of National Accounts was revised in August 2013 in accordance with changes in the new System of National Accounts 2008.
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19953.7782.3123.9823.5753.4413.503-6.2884.978
IsraelUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition. Seasonally adjusted.
Primary domestic currency: Israeli shekel
Data last updated: 04/20205.9005.3254.8004.2754.0003.80012.0007.600
IsraelGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury. MoF and NSO
Latest actual data: 2019
Fiscal assumptions: Historical data are based on Government Finance Statistics data prepared by the Central Bureau of Statistics. Projections assume that a 2020 budget will be approved shortly and that the announced fiscal package will be implemented.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Quasi-accrual basis.
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans;. Net debt subtracts liquidity financial assets from gross debt-2.273-0.915-1.398-1.112-3.621-3.906-10.211-5.864
IsraelCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office. NSO and Haver
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)4.0355.0983.3242.2942.5643.4723.5453.152
KoreaGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: Central Bank. The Bank of Korea revised the national accounts data when adopting the 2008 System of National Accounts (SNA). Official data are only available from 2000. Data prior to 2000 were obtained by applying the growth rates of the previous data series and should be treated as provisional.
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from before 19803.2022.8092.9473.1602.6652.033-1.1783.403
KoreaUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Korean won
Data last updated: 04/20203.4923.5923.6753.6833.8333.7834.5004.500
KoreaGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2017
Notes: The series on general government debt does not include non-market non-profit institutions.
Fiscal assumptions: The medium-term forecast incorporates the medium-term path for the overall fiscal balance in the 2020 budget and medium-term fiscal plan announced by government.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2001
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;. For government gross/net debt only, general government includes central government and local governments. The series on general government debt does not include non-market non-profit institutions.
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans0.3970.5221.6462.1882.5690.862-1.842-1.567
KoreaCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)5.5947.1726.5284.6334.5023.6904.9464.822
LatviaGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19951.9153.2611.7743.7874.2852.197-8.6088.285
LatviaUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Labor statistics are based on Labor Force Survey data, which were revised in 2011 in compliance with Population and Housing Census 2011 results; data before 2011 have not been revised yet.
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/202010.8479.8759.6428.7157.4156.3188.0006.300
LatviaGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Public debt covers debt of the general government excluding debt of the commercial companies and institutional units, reclassified by the Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) in the general government (central and local government) sector. It does not include liabilities in the form of other accounts payable.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans-1.680-1.529-0.400-0.827-0.740-0.381-5.169-3.663
LatviaCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)-2.266-0.8841.4361.019-0.681-0.535-2.161-1.458
LithuaniaGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office. Data from Statistics Lithuania: http://www.stat.gov.lt/en/
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data prior to 1995 cannot be confirmed by national sources at this time.
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 20053.5082.0332.5564.2483.6443.914-8.0868.155
LithuaniaUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Eurostat harmonized data
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/202010.6999.1197.8617.0736.1466.3008.9008.100
LithuaniaGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2018
Notes: ‘gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections for the current year take into account up-to-date available data. Projections for future years are passive on the basis on announced policy measures and the envisioned neutral stance by the authorities.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. This is the format of data presented by the authorities.-0.665-0.2080.2590.5230.6620.248-7.629-2.529
LithuaniaCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: Central Bank. http://www.lbank.lt/eng/statistic/index.html.
Latest actual data: 2019. Monthly data available for June 2018
Notes: Data prior to 1993 cannot be confirmed by national sources at this time.
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)3.168-2.813-0.8200.5930.2904.2746.0134.455
New ZealandGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office. Statistics New Zealand
Latest actual data: 2019. Authorities' actual annual data are April/March recalculated using quarterly data as Jan/Dec
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices. Data refer to calendar years
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December. January/December annual data calculated from quarterly data consistent with authorities' actual April/March annual data
Base year: 2009/10. The base year is 2009Q2 to 2010Q1
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19873.1704.0784.1673.7743.1662.180-7.2125.941
New ZealandUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office. Statistics New Zealand
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition. Data refer to calendar years
Primary domestic currency: New Zealand dollar
Data last updated: 04/20205.3505.3255.1004.7254.2754.0509.2236.814
New ZealandGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2018/19. Available as fiscal year (July/June) converted to calendar year (Jan/Dec) as average of two adjacent fiscal years
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the fiscal year 2019/20 budget, the 2019 Half Year Economic and Fiscal Update, and IMF staff estimates.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government;. Central government and local governments
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans; Shares and Other Equity-0.4400.3171.0241.2881.429-1.619-5.181-3.388
New ZealandCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office. Statistics New Zealand
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)-3.131-2.829-2.033-2.717-3.844-2.969-4.515-3.214
NorwayGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2018
National accounts manual used: Nominally ESA 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2017
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19801.9691.9671.0722.3231.2901.151-6.2692.949
NorwayUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2018
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Norwegian krone
Data last updated: 04/20203.6174.5314.7404.2163.8543.72813.0007.000
NorwayGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: National Statistical Office and Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2019
Fiscal assumptions: The fiscal projections are based on the 2020 budget.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Securities Other than Shares;. Treasury bills with maturity of up to one year, and bonds with maturity of up to 10 years. Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable.8.6236.0224.0564.9997.3397.9190.7843.682
NorwayCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2018
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)10.8458.0344.4534.6157.1453.960-1.3140.089
PortugalGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2016
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19800.7921.7922.0193.5062.6372.157-8.0005.000
PortugalUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/202013.89412.44411.0668.8676.9946.46313.9408.685
PortugalGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019. General government statistics in 2017 are provisional and will be updated after the actual data are published.
Notes: Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable.
Fiscal assumptions: The projections for the current year are based on the authorities’ approved budget, adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s macroeconomic forecast. Projections thereafter are based on the assumption of unchanged policies.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2001
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds; Other;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans-7.120-4.303-1.970-2.960-0.4460.190-7.094-1.888
PortugalCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)0.1570.2301.1721.3020.389-0.0850.282-0.356
SwitzerlandGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2010
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19802.4821.2661.7111.8642.7440.917-5.9663.777
SwitzerlandUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO)
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Swiss franc
Data last updated: 04/20203.0443.1783.3233.0882.5472.3062.7252.600
SwitzerlandGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2017
Fiscal assumptions: The authorities’ announced discretionary stimulus—as reflected in the fiscal projections for 2020—which is permitted within the context of the debt brake rule in the event of “exceptional circumstances”.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2001
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds; Other;. Other refers to Cantons.
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value-0.2140.6450.3281.2251.3910.888-5.060-1.897
SwitzerlandCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)8.61911.2609.8506.4148.21212.2467.2168.825
United StatesGross domestic product, constant pricesPercent change Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices. Real Gross Domestic Product determined by chained Fisher quantity growth rates.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2012
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 19802.5262.9081.6382.3702.9272.334-5.9074.739
United StatesUnemployment ratePercent of total labor force Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollar
Data last updated: 03/20206.1585.2754.8754.3423.8923.66710.3609.135
United StatesGeneral government net lending/borrowingPercent of GDP Source: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2018. Repatriation tax on foreign earnings (a provision of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act), estimated at $250 billion, which accrued at end-2017 and recorded as capital transfer to the government in the GFS, was removed from government revenue. Staff's baseline projection embeds the impact of this tax provision over time to reflect the fact that corporations have eight years to pay off this tax liability.
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the January 2020 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. Projections then incorporate the effects of the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, the Families First Coronavirus Response Act, and the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (all signed in March 2020). Finally, fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Data is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Loans; Insurance Technical Reserves; Financial Derivatives; Monetary Gold and SDRs-4.034-3.566-4.269-4.471-5.682-5.782-15.448-8.643
United StatesCurrent account balancePercent of GDP Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)-2.084-2.237-2.289-2.252-2.386-2.326-2.634-2.758
Notes
  Country/Series-specific Notes  
  Austria: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1995


Austria: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/2020


Austria: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on data from Statistics Austria, the authorities’ projections, and IMF staff estimates and projections.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans;;. Our framework follows the Maastricht debt criteria.


Austria: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Czech Republic: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2010
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1995


Czech Republic: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: Haver Analytics
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Czech koruna
Data last updated: 04/2020


Czech Republic: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable.
Fiscal assumptions: Projections are based on the Convergence Program and latest-available Fiscal Outlook with adjustments for macroeconomic projections from the IMF staff.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans; Shares and Other Equity; Insurance Technical Reserves; Financial Derivatives


Czech Republic: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Denmark: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: ESA 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2010
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980


Denmark: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: Eurostat
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Danish krone
Data last updated: 04/2020


Denmark: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable
Fiscal assumptions: Estimates for 2019 are aligned with the latest official budget numbers, adjusted where appropriate for the IMF staff’s macroeconomic assumptions. For 2020, the projections incorporate key features of the medium-term fiscal plan as embodied in the authorities’ latest budget.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. Nominal Value debt valuation is consistent with Eurostat's definition
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans;. Subtracted items include Currency and Deposits, Securities Other than Shares, Loans and Other Financial Assets.


Denmark: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Germany: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data until 1990 refers to German federation only (West Germany). National accounts data until 1990 do not include FISIM. Data from 1991 refer to United Germany and include FISIM.
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1991. From 1991.


Germany: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data until 1990 refers to German federation only (West Germany). Data from 1991 refer to United Germany.
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/2020


Germany: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office. Data of general government gross debt comes from EUROSTAT
Latest actual data: 2019. The latest actual data of general government debt is 2019.
Fiscal assumptions: The IMF staff’s projections for 2020 and beyond are based on the 2020 draft budgetary plan and data updates from the national statistical agency and ministry of finance, adjusted for the differences in the IMF staff's macroeconomic framework and assumptions concerning revenue elasticities. The estimate of gross debt includes portfolios of impaired assets and noncore business transferred to institutions that are winding up, as well as other financial sector and EU support operations.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;. other refers to special funds
Valuation of public debt: Face value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans


Germany: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: Central Bank. Additional source: IMF Statistics Department
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data until 1990 refers to German federation only (West Germany). Data from 1991 refer to United Germany.
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Israel: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008. The System of National Accounts was revised in August 2013 in accordance with changes in the new System of National Accounts 2008.
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1995


Israel: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition. Seasonally adjusted.
Primary domestic currency: Israeli shekel
Data last updated: 04/2020


Israel: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury. MoF and NSO
Latest actual data: 2019
Fiscal assumptions: Historical data are based on Government Finance Statistics data prepared by the Central Bureau of Statistics. Projections assume that a 2020 budget will be approved shortly and that the announced fiscal package will be implemented.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Quasi-accrual basis.
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans;. Net debt subtracts liquidity financial assets from gross debt


Israel: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office. NSO and Haver
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Korea: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: Central Bank. The Bank of Korea revised the national accounts data when adopting the 2008 System of National Accounts (SNA). Official data are only available from 2000. Data prior to 2000 were obtained by applying the growth rates of the previous data series and should be treated as provisional.
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from before 1980


Korea: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Korean won
Data last updated: 04/2020


Korea: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2017
Notes: The series on general government debt does not include non-market non-profit institutions.
Fiscal assumptions: The medium-term forecast incorporates the medium-term path for the overall fiscal balance in the 2020 budget and medium-term fiscal plan announced by government.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2001
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government;. For government gross/net debt only, general government includes central government and local governments. The series on general government debt does not include non-market non-profit institutions.
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans


Korea: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Latvia: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1995


Latvia: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Labor statistics are based on Labor Force Survey data, which were revised in 2011 in compliance with Population and Housing Census 2011 results; data before 2011 have not been revised yet.
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/2020


Latvia: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Public debt covers debt of the general government excluding debt of the commercial companies and institutional units, reclassified by the Central Statistical Bureau (CSB) in the general government (central and local government) sector. It does not include liabilities in the form of other accounts payable.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
Basis of recording: Cash
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans


Latvia: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Lithuania: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office. Data from Statistics Lithuania: http://www.stat.gov.lt/en/
Latest actual data: 2019
Notes: Data prior to 1995 cannot be confirmed by national sources at this time.
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2015
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 2005


Lithuania: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Eurostat harmonized data
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/2020


Lithuania: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2018
Notes: ‘gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections for the current year take into account up-to-date available data. Projections for future years are passive on the basis on announced policy measures and the envisioned neutral stance by the authorities.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value. This is the format of data presented by the authorities.


Lithuania: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: Central Bank. http://www.lbank.lt/eng/statistic/index.html.
Latest actual data: 2019. Monthly data available for June 2018
Notes: Data prior to 1993 cannot be confirmed by national sources at this time.
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


New Zealand: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office. Statistics New Zealand
Latest actual data: 2019. Authorities' actual annual data are April/March recalculated using quarterly data as Jan/Dec
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices. Data refer to calendar years
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December. January/December annual data calculated from quarterly data consistent with authorities' actual April/March annual data
Base year: 2009/10. The base year is 2009Q2 to 2010Q1
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1987


New Zealand: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office. Statistics New Zealand
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition. Data refer to calendar years
Primary domestic currency: New Zealand dollar
Data last updated: 04/2020


New Zealand: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2018/19. Available as fiscal year (July/June) converted to calendar year (Jan/Dec) as average of two adjacent fiscal years
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the fiscal year 2019/20 budget, the 2019 Half Year Economic and Fiscal Update, and IMF staff estimates.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government;. Central government and local governments
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans; Shares and Other Equity


New Zealand: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office. Statistics New Zealand
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Norway: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2018
National accounts manual used: Nominally ESA 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2017
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980


Norway: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2018
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Norwegian krone
Data last updated: 04/2020


Norway: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistical Office and Ministry of Finance
Latest actual data: 2019
Fiscal assumptions: The fiscal projections are based on the 2020 budget.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds;
Valuation of public debt: Current market value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Securities Other than Shares;. Treasury bills with maturity of up to one year, and bonds with maturity of up to 10 years. Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable.


Norway: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2018
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Portugal: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2016
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980


Portugal: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: Harmonized ILO definition
Primary domestic currency: Euro
Data last updated: 04/2020


Portugal: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019. General government statistics in 2017 are provisional and will be updated after the actual data are published.
Notes: Gross debt follows the Maastricht definition of gross debt, and excludes other accounts payable.
Fiscal assumptions: The projections for the current year are based on the authorities’ approved budget, adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s macroeconomic forecast. Projections thereafter are based on the assumption of unchanged policies.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2001
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds; Other;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Securities Other than Shares; Loans


Portugal: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


Switzerland: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: European System of Accounts (ESA) 2010
GDP valuation: Market prices
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2010
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980


Switzerland: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO)
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: Swiss franc
Data last updated: 04/2020


Switzerland: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: Ministry of Finance or Treasury
Latest actual data: 2017
Fiscal assumptions: The authorities’ announced discretionary stimulus—as reflected in the fiscal projections for 2020—which is permitted within the context of the debt brake rule in the event of “exceptional circumstances”.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2001
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government; Social Security Funds; Other;. Other refers to Cantons.
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value


Switzerland: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: Central Bank
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


United States: Gross domestic product, constant prices (Percent change)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
National accounts manual used: System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008
GDP valuation: Market prices. Real Gross Domestic Product determined by chained Fisher quantity growth rates.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
Base year: 2012
Chain-weighted: Yes, from 1980


United States: Unemployment rate (Percent of total labor force)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
Employment type: National definition
Primary domestic currency: U.S. dollar
Data last updated: 03/2020


United States: General government net lending/borrowing (Percent of GDP)
Source: BEA and IMF's Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (revenue, expenditure, and net lending); Flow of Funds (debt)
Latest actual data: 2018. Repatriation tax on foreign earnings (a provision of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act), estimated at $250 billion, which accrued at end-2017 and recorded as capital transfer to the government in the GFS, was removed from government revenue. Staff's baseline projection embeds the impact of this tax provision over time to reflect the fact that corporations have eight years to pay off this tax liability.
Notes: Revenue, expenditure, and net lending data are is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Fiscal assumptions: Fiscal projections are based on the January 2020 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. Projections then incorporate the effects of the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, the Families First Coronavirus Response Act, and the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (all signed in March 2020). Finally, fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Data is compiled using SNA 2008, and when translated into GFS this is in accordance with GFSM 2014. Due to data limitations, most series begin 2001.
Start/end months of reporting year: January/December
GFS Manual used: Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM) 2014
Basis of recording: Accrual
General government includes: Central Government; State Government; Local Government;
Valuation of public debt: Nominal value
Instruments included in gross and net debt: Currency and Deposits; Loans; Insurance Technical Reserves; Financial Derivatives; Monetary Gold and SDRs


United States: Current account balance (Percent of GDP)
Source: National Statistics Office
Latest actual data: 2019
BOP Manual used: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)


 
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