IMF Executive Board Approves US$133.6 Million Arrangement Under the Extended Credit Facility for the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Press Release No. 11/412
November 15, 2011

The Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved on November 14, 2011 a three year, SDR 85 million (about US$133.6 million) arrangement under the Extended Credit Facility (ECF) for Afghanistan which is designed to support the nation's economic program from 2011 to 2014. The approval will immediately enable an initial disbursement of an amount equivalent to SDR 12 million (about US$18.9 million).

The IMF-supported economic program’s key objectives are to make significant progress toward a stable and sustainable macroeconomic position while managing the challenges of the withdrawal of the international presence in Afghanistan; strengthening the banking system and addressing the governance and accountability issues highlighted by the Kabul Bank crisis; moving toward fiscal sustainability; and improving the transparency and efficiency of public spending and services to protect the poor.

Following the Executive Board's discussion of Afghanistan, Ms. Nemat Shafik, Deputy Managing Director and Acting Chair, said:

“Despite a difficult political and security situation, Afghanistan has made important achievements in recent years. Growth has averaged over 10 percent in the last five years, inflation was moderate, and domestic revenues increased by 3 percent of GDP.

“After the collapse of Kabul Bank, the authorities took action to contain the situation and prevent a broader financial meltdown, including providing a full deposit guarantee. Since then, Kabul Bank was split into a good bank and a bad bank, and an in-depth audit is under way to establish who benefited from the fraudulent activities. Asset recovery and legal actions against the architects of the fraud have lagged and need to be pursued more forcefully. It is important that the relevant prior action is fully met before the first review of the program.

“Over the next three to five years, the withdrawal of the international military presence and an expected decline in foreign aid will pose significant economic policy challenges. The government will have to take over activities currently financed by donors, including shouldering a larger share of security spending. Thus, while donor support is projected to remain substantial, the expected gradual decline will curtail the fiscal space and require external adjustment.

“The authorities’ three-year program, supported by the Fund’s Extended Credit Facility, will help address these short and medium-term challenges and provide the basis for sustained inclusive growth and poverty reduction in line with Afghanistan’s National Development Strategy. It is important that the authorities accelerate measures to enhance governance, including strengthening the banking law and financial sector supervision, as well as the framework for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism. They are also encouraged to be more ambitious on domestic revenue mobilization, which may require measures in addition to the planned revenue administration reforms and the introduction of a value-added tax in 2014.”

ANNEX

Recent Economic Developments

The authorities have taken steps to lay the foundation for economic stability and growth, despite a very difficult security situation and the challenges associated with building political and economic institutions. As a result, economic activity has been robust, with real GDP growth averaging more than 10 percent annually over the past five years. The government has increased revenue collection to 11 percent of GDP in 2010/11 from 8 percent in 2008/09, though current collection levels cover only about two-thirds of central government operating expenditures.

Some poverty indicators have improved over the last decade, but Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Per-capita income was US$530 in 2010/11. The national poverty rate was 36 percent in 2007/08, as measured by the National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment, and the rates are higher in rural and mountainous areas that account for about 80 percent of the population.

Program Summary

Stabilizing the economy. Despite an expected decline in overall donor assistance, the authorities’ goal is to sustain annual real GDP growth at about 6–7 percent over the next three years, supported by an expansion in the nonagricultural sector and mining investment. Cognizant of the negative effects of inflation, particularly on the poor, the authorities also plan to strive to bring inflation down. Sustained donor funding and a stable economy will support the balance of payments and provide the basis for high and inclusive growth.

Strengthening the banking and financial sectors. The authorities have designed and started implementing a comprehensive strategy to strengthen the banking system, to lower fiscal costs associated with Kabul Bank’s failure, and to address governance issues. This strategy includes resolving Kabul Bank, drawing lessons from its failure, promoting transparency, governance and the framework for protecting the financial system from economic crime, as well as addressing moral hazard, and strengthening banking supervision and safeguarding a financial system based on integrity and the rule of law.

Moving toward fiscal sustainability. Fiscal sustainability will depend on sustained increases in revenues together with prioritized spending reflecting development and security priorities. The program envisages an increase in domestic revenues of 0.6 percent of GDP in the next three years. Looking beyond the program period, the planned introduction of a VAT in March 2014 is expected to raise an additional 2 percent of GDP, and the authorities are aiming for a revenue-to-GDP ratio of about 16 percent of GDP by 2017/18.

Prioritizing development spending. In line with the the government’s Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS), which aims at improving the delivery of government services, aligning foreign development assistance with Afghanistan’s national priorities, and channeling more resources through the budget. In particular, although it will be necessary to allocate increasing amounts of spending to security, adequate resources will be allocated to help the poor.


Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Selected Economic Indicators, 2006/07–2013/14 1/
(Population: approx. 30 million; 2010/11)
(Per capita GDP: US$530; 2010/11)
(Poverty rate: 36 percent; 2007/08)
(Main export: dried fruit, US$210 million; 2009/10)
 
  2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14
        Prel. Projection
 

Output and prices1

(Annual percentage change, unless otherwise indicated)

Real GDP

5.6 13.7 3.6 21.0 8.4 5.7 7.1 5.8

Nominal GDP (in billions of U.S. dollars)

7.1 8.7 10.5 12.5 15.9 18.4 19.6 21.0

Consumer prices (period average) 2

5.1 13.0 26.8 -12.2 7.7 10.5 4.6 5.0

Public finances

               

Domestic revenues and grants

18.3 19.9 17.5 20.5 22.0 23.7 23.7 24.0

Domestic revenues

8.2 7.7 7.8 10.3 11.0 11.5 11.3 11.6

Grants

10.2 12.3 9.8 10.2 11.0 12.2 12.4 12.4

Expenditures

21.5 22.0 21.7 22.1 21.1 23.8 25.3 25.7

Operating3

12.3 11.6 13.1 14.5 15.1 17.6 18.6 18.7

Development

9.2 10.3 8.6 7.6 5.9 6.2 6.6 7.0

Overall balance (including grants)

-3.1 -2.0 -4.1 -1.6 0.9 0.0 -1.6 -1.7

Operating balance (excluding grants)4

-4.2 -4.0 -5.3 -4.2 -4.1 -6.1 -7.4 -7.1

Monetary sector

(Annual percentage change, unless otherwise indicated)

Reserve money

22.3 14.4 64.9 17.1 21.3 18.8 17.1 16.2

Broad money

... 31.0 35.9 39.3 22.6 18.3 15.1 17.1

External sector1

(In percent of GDP, unless otherwise indicated)

Exports of goods

(in U.S. dollars, percentage change) 5

1.4 1.8 33.0 2.1 12.7 2.5 -8.8 -3.4

Imports of goods

(in U.S. dollars, percentage change)

10.0 15.6 14.8 -0.8 3.0 0.4 0.0 0.6

Merchandise trade balance

-69.7 -67.9 -61.9 -50.9 -39.6 -34.1 -33.3 -31.7

Current account balance

               

Excluding official transfers

-71.1 -68.1 -59.6 -51.3 -39.8 -34.3 -33.2 -31.5

Including official transfers

-5.6 1.3 0.9 -2.8 1.7 0.1 -1.1 -2.6

Foreign direct investment

2.7 2.8 2.9 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.9

Total external debt6

169.6 23.0 19.7 9.2 8.0 7.9 8.6 9.1

Gross international reserves

(in millions of U.S. dollars)

2,040 2,784 3,591 4,209 5,321 6,121 6,627 7,178

(Import coverage)7

3.4 4.1 5.3 6.0 7.4 8.4 9.0 9.5

Afghanis per U.S. dollar (average)

49.9 49.8 51.0 49.3 45.8 ... ... ...

Memorandum items:

 

 

           

Opium production (in tons)

6,100 8,200 7,700 6,900 3,600 ... ... ...

External budget grants8

55.4 57.4 49.3 39.9 30.5 22.1 19.7 16.5
 

Sources: Afghan authorities; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; and Fund staff estimates and projections. 

1 Excluding the narcotics economy.

2 For Kabul only. 

3 Comprising mainly current spending. 

4 Defined as domestic revenues plus operating budget grants minus operating expenditures. 

5 Includes official recorded exports, estimates of smuggling, reexports and sales to nonresidents.

6 After debt relief.

7 Gross reserves in months of next year's imports of goods and services, excluding imports for reexport.

8 Estimated direct expenditures by donors on public projects not included in the government budget.



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