Bernardin Akitoby is Assistant Director of the IMF’s European Department. Previously, he was Assistant Director of the IMF Fiscal Affairs Department, where his operational work and research spanned all regions in the world. He oversaw fiscal operations in European crisis countries during the global financial crisis. At the IMF, he has led various policy papers and missions on surveillance, program negotiations and review, and capacity building. Before joining the IMF, Mr. Akitoby worked in the World Bank’s Research Department and taught at the University of Montreal.