Publications on Trade Liberalization

Market Access for Developing Countries' Exports

Prepared by the Staffs of the International Monetary Fund
and the World Bank

April 27, 2001

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Executive Summary

I. Introduction

II. Changes in the Pattern of World Trade

III. Protection in Merchandise Trade

    A. Tariffs
    B. Agricultural Subsidies and Nontariff Measures (NTMs)
    C. Trade Preferences
    D. Conclusions

IV. Trade in Services

    A. Barriers to Trade in Services
    B. Measuring Barriers to Trade in Services
    C. Conclusions

V. The Gains From Liberalization

    A. Gains From Liberalization in Merchandise Trade
    B. Gains From Liberalization in Services
    C. Conclusions


    1. Growth of Merchandise Exports, 1970-2000
    2. Developing Countries: Share of Exports Going to Other Developing Countries, 1965-98
    3. World: Product Composition of Merchandise Exports, 1965-98
    4. Developing Countries: Composition of Merchandise Exports, 1965-98
    5. Share of Commercial Services in Total Exports of Goods and Services, 1980-97
    6. Sub-Saharan Africa: Composition of Merchandise Exports, 1965-95
    7. Commodity Composition and Export Growth, 1980-99
    8. Simple Average MFN Tariffs, 2000
    9. Tariff Escalation: Average Applied Tariffs by Stage of Production
    10. Initiations of Antidumping Investigations, 1987-99
    11. Relationship Between Income Level and GATS Commitments
    12. Structure of WTO Members' Commitments by Sector, June 2000

Text Tables

    1. Uruguay Round Tariff Concessions
    2. Post-Uruguay Round Average Tariff Rates
    3. Quad Countries: Imports and Tariff Peaks, 1999
    4. Select Countries: Import Tariff Maximum and Tariff Peaks
    5. Industrial Country Imports from Developing Countries: Changes in Tariff Escalation
    6. Trade Weighted Average Tariffs
    7. Initiations of Antidumping Investigations, 1995-99
    8. Tariff Peaks and Preferential Duty Rates in the Quad, 1999
    9. Welfare Gains from Post-Uruguay Round Trade Liberalization
    10. Welfare Effects of Trade Liberalization on Developing Countries

Text Boxes

    1. Indicators of Tariff Protection
    2. Agriculture: Tariffication and Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQs)
    3. Standards in International Trade
    4. The Cost of Customs and Border Procedures
    5. Recent Market Access Initiatives for LDCs
    6. What's Different About Services?
    7. Barriers to Trade in Services

Appendix Tables

    1. Shares of Manufactures in Total Merchandise Exports
    2. Post-Uruguay Round Bound Tariffs on Agricultural and Industrial Products


    I. The Implementation of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC)
    II. The GATS Rules on Measures Affecting Services Trade