Second Generation Reforms
List of Speakers
(Chairpersons, Authors, Discussants, Panelists)
(In order of Sessions)
IMF Headquarters, Washington, D.C.
Chairperson: Mohsin S. Khan, Director, IMF Institute. Mr. Khan holds a Ph.D from the London School of Economics. He joined the IMF in 1972 as an Economist in the Research Department, where he held increasingly senior positions, including Advisor, Assistant Director, and Senior Advisor of the Department. He was Deputy Director of the Research Department before joining the IMF Institute in 1996. He serves on the editorial boards of 10 academic journals and is currently a member of the Advisory Committee of the African Economic Research Consortium in Nairobi, Kenya. He has also produced numerous publications including 5 books and more than 100 articles on macroeconomic and monetary policies in developing countries, economic growth, international trade and finance, and Islamic banking.
"Institutions and Economic Performance"
Author: Robert Bates, Professor of Government, Harvard University. Professor Bates' appointment is both in the Government Department and the Center for International Development. After receiving his Ph.D. from MIT in 1969, he joined the Division of Social Sciences at CalTech, where he rose to full professor. He then accepted an appointment at Duke University, where he served as Henry R. Luce Professor of Political Economy, before joining the faculty at Harvard. He has conducted field research in Zambia, Kenya, and Uganda in Africa and Colombia and Brazil in Latin America. His most recent works are entitled Analytic Narratives (Princeton 1998), which explores the use of game theory in the study of development and Open Economy Politics (Princeton 1997).
Discussant: Anthony Lanyi, Director, Macroeconomics and Economic Policy, IRIS, University of Maryland. After a B.A. from Harvard and Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, Mr. Lanyi taught economics at Princeton from 1966 to 1970. From 1970 to 1996, he worked at the IMF, serving in the Exchange and Trade Relations Department, Research Department, and the IMF Institute, in the latter as Deputy Director. Since joining IRIS, his projects have included studies of fiscal reform in Russia, modernization of the government in the Dominican Republic, and evaluation of small- and medium-enterprise projects in Eastern Europe for the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ). Recently, he and a co-author (Young Lee) have completed a paper entitled "Governance Aspects of the East Asian Financial Crisis.""Institutions for High-Quality Growth: What They Are and How to Acquire Them"
Author: Dani Rodrik, Professor of International Political Economy, Harvard University. Professor Rodrik has published widely in the areas of international economics, economic development, and political economy. He is the research coordinator of the Group of 24, and is affiliated with the National Bureau of Economic Research, Centre for Economic Policy Research (London), and Overseas Development Council. He serves on the advisory committees for the Institute for International Economics and the Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran, and Turkey. Among other honors, he was the invited Marshall lecturer of the European Economic Association in 1996. He holds a Ph.D. in economics, an MPA from Princeton University, and an A.B. from Harvard College.
Discussant: Saleh M. Nsouli, Deputy Director, IMF Institute. Mr. Nsouli holds a Ph.D in Economics from Vanderbilt University. Mr. Nsouli has held numerous other senior positions since joining the IMF in 1973, including in the Middle Eastern Department, African Department, Policy Development and Review Department, the Research Department, and the Executive Board. He has published widely on African and Middle Eastern economic and financial issues, as well as on macroeconomic and structural adjustment, international trade theory, and current and capital account convertibility.
Session 2: Role of the State
Chairperson: Jean-Claude Milleron, Executive Director, IMF. With a degree from Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, Mr. Milleron has taught at the National School of Statistics and Economic Administration (ENSAE) and early in his career was a researcher in the Economics' Department at Berkeley. In the 70's and 80's, he was successively promoted Director of ENSAE, then named Director of the Department of Economic Policy and Forecasting in the French Ministry of Finance, and finally was appointed Director General of INSEE, the French Statistical Office. From 1992-97, he was first Special Advisor to the UN Secretary General and then Under Secretary General for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. In 1997, he served as a Special Advisor to the French Minister of the Economy for the reorganization of the Ministry. Since January 1998, Mr. Milleron has been Executive Director for France of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, as well as Financial Minister at the French Embassy in Washington.
"The Quality of the Public Sector"
Author: Vito Tanzi, Director, Fiscal Affairs Department, IMF. Mr. Tanzi received his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Before joining the IMF in 1974, he was Professor and Chairman, Department of Economics, at American University. He has also been on the faculty of George Washington University and a consultant for the World Bank, the UN, the OAS, and the Stanford Research Institute. His major interests are public finance, monetary theory, and macroeconomics, and he has published several books and numerous articles on these subjects. In the period 1990-94, he was President of the International Institute of Public Finance.
Discussant: Hilton Root, Senior Fellow, The Milken Institute. Mr. Root's research focuses on the global economy, with expertise in Asia and Southeast Asia in particular. Prior to joining the Milken Institute, Mr. Root was a senior research fellow and director of the Initiative on Economic Growth and Democracy at the Hoover Institution. He was also an associate professor in the public policy and international policy studies programs at Stanford University. From 1994-97 he served as Chief Advisor on Governance at the Asian Development Bank. His work is widely published and he's a frequent contributor to the Asian Wall Street Journal and the International Herald Tribune. Mr. Root received his Ph.D. in Economics and History from the University of Michigan in 1983."What Role Do Legal Institutions Play in Development?"
Author: Michael Trebilcock, Professor of Law and Director of the Law and Economics Program, University of Toronto. Professor Trebilcock has been associated with various studies on Canadian competition policy, public enterprises, business bail-outs, misleading advertising and unfair business practice laws, as well as regulatory reform and the choice of governing instruments, "reinventing" government, trade-related adjustment assistance policies, and trade remedy laws, among others. In 1999 he was awarded the 1998 Molson Prize for contributions to the social sciences and humanities in Canada by the Canada Council, received an honorary doctorate of laws degree from McGill University, and was elected an honorary foreign fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Discussant: William E. Holder, Deputy General Counsel, Legal Department, IMF. Mr. Holder joined the International Monetary Fund in 1976 and has served as Deputy General Counsel since 1986. He is co-editor of The International Legal System: Cases and Materials with Emphasis on the Australian Perspective (Butterworths, 1972) and is the author of many articles on international law and other legal subjects. Mr. Holder received his LL.B. and his B.A. from the University of Melbourne, an LL.M. from Yale University, and a Diploma from the Hague Academy of International Law. He has taught at the University of Melbourne, the University of Mississippi, and the Australian National University, and served as an advisor on international law for the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs.
Chairperson: Mohsin S. Khan, Director, IMF Institute."The Quality of Growth"
Author: Vinod Thomas, Director, World Bank Institute. Mr. Thomas' expertise includes knowledge-sharing and training, trade policy, macroeconomic adjustment, macro-sectoral links, environmental policy, agricultural policy, urban economics, and poverty measures. Prior to heading the WBI, Mr. Thomas held positions as chief economist for the World Bank in the East Asia and Pacific region, chief economist for Asia, staff director for the 1991 World Development Report, chief of trade policy, and principal economist for Colombia. He joined the Bank in 1976. From 1979 to 1981, Mr. Thomas was a Visiting Professor and Advisor of Urban Studies at the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Before joining the Bank, Mr. Thomas lectured at Vassar College. He is a graduate of the University of Chicago.
Discussant: Andrew Feltenstein, Professor of Economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and Resident Lecturer, IMF Institute. Professor Feltenstein received his BA and MA in mathematics from Harvard and Yale, respectively, and his Ph.D. in economics from Yale. He also attended Heidelberg University as a Fulbright Scholar in 1968. Professor Feltenstein's current research interests are in applied general equilibrium analysis, development economics, microeconomics of transition economies, and public finance.
Session 3: Importance of Civil Society
Chairperson: Vito Tanzi, Director, Fiscal Affairs Department, IMF. Mr. Tanzi received his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Before joining the IMF in 1974, he was Professor and Chairman, Department of Economics, at American University. He has also been on the faculty of George Washington University and a consultant for the World Bank, the UN, the OAS, and the Stanford Research Institute. His major interests are public finance, monetary theory, and macroeconomics and he has published several books and numerous articles on these subjects. In the period 1990-94, he was President of the International Institute of Public Finance.
"Social Capital and Civil Society"
Author: Francis Fukuyama, Hirst Professor of Public Policy, George Mason University. Professor Fukuyama is a political scientist specializing in Middle Eastern political-military affairs and the foreign policy of the former Soviet Union. He has held various positions over the past 15 years with the Rand Corporation and with the U.S. Department of State. He has written widely on issues relating to Soviet foreign policy in the Third World and on questions of democratization and political economy. He is a senior researcher at the Rand Corporation. He is also a fellow of the John Hopkins University School for Advanced International Studies' Foreign Policy Institute and director of its telecommunications project. He is author of The End of History and the Last Man (1989). His most recent book is Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity.
Discussant: Paul Collier, Director, Development Research Group, The World Bank. Mr. Collier, a U.K. National, is on leave from Oxford University, where he is one of six full professors of economics, and the Director of the Centre for the Study of African Economies. During 1992-95, he was visiting professor at the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard. He is founding editor of the Journal of African Economies and a Fellow of the CEPR. Mr. Collier has developed the study of African economies across a range of topics. Much of his work has been in international economics (on which he received his Ph.D.), but he has also published on rural development (winning the Edgar Graham Prize), labor markets (working on the 1995 WDR), and finance (he chairs the Finance Group of the African Economic Research Consortium). His current work is on the quantitative political economy of civil war.
Session 4: Sound Regulation
Chairperson: Riccardo Faini, Executive Director, IMF. Prior to his IMF appointment, Mr. Faini served as Professor of Economics and Political Industry, University of Brescia. From 1988-90 he served as Associate Professor, International Trade, Development Economics, Johns Hopkins University, Bologna. Mr. Faini received his Ph.D. from MIT in 1981. He has served on numerous Boards and Committees. Most recently he was Advisor to the Chairman, Competitiveness Advisory Group, European Commission. He has written numerous articles for economic journals and publications.
"The Second Generation of Regulatory Reforms"
Author: Scott Jacobs, Head of Program on Regulatory Reform, Public Management Service, OECD. Since 1991, Mr. Jacobs has been responsible for the work of the OECD Public Management Service on regulatory reform, and since 1995, he has led an international team responsible for multidisciplinary work on regulation throughout the organization. He developed the 1995 OECD Recommendation on Improving the Quality of Government Regulation, the first international standard on regulatory quality. In 1997, he was the lead drafter for the OECD Report to Ministers on Regulatory Reform and policy recommendations endorsed by member countries at ministerial level. In 1999, he was the lead drafter of OECD reviews of regulatory reform in Japan, the United States, the Netherlands, and Mexico. Prior to his OECD career, Mr. Jacobs was in the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs in OMB in the Executive Office of the President in Washington, D.C. He served as deputy branch chief responsible for overseeing regulatory activities of the Departments of the Treasury; of Housing and Urban Development; and of Labor. He has authored numerous articles and co-authored several books. He holds a graduate degree in Public Affairs from Princeton University.
Discussant: Ralph Bradburd, Professor of Political Economy, Williams College. Professor Bradburd holds a Ph.D. from Columbia University. He specializes in industrial organization and applied microeconomics. His most recent publications include "Reforming Former Public Monopolies: The Case of Water Supply", "Market Reforms and Equitable Growth in Latin America", and "Why Things Have to Get a Lot Worse Before They Can Get Better: Institutions, Investments, Crisis and Reform"."The Role of Financial Regulation in a World of Deregulation and Market Forces"
Author: Lawrence J. White, Professor of Economics, New York University's Stern School of Business. Professor White teaches microeconomics for global decision-making and information in the market place. During 1986-89 he was on leave to serve as Board member, Federal Home Loan Bank Board, and during 1982-83 he was on leave to serve as Director of the Economic Policy Office, Antitrust Division, U.S. Department of Justice. From 1990-95 he was Chairman of the Stern School's Department of Economics. Professor White received his M.Sc. from the London School of Economics in 1965, and his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1969. His research interest includes financial regulations, antitrust, and other regulations. He is author of The S&L Debacle: Public Policy Lessons for Bank and Thrift Regulation (1991), and he is editor of The Antitrust Revolution (1989, 2nd edn., 1994) and Structural Change in Banking (1993).
Discussant: Stefan Ingves, Director, Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department, IMF. Before joining the Fund, Mr. Ingves was the First Deputy Director of the Central Bank of Sweden. Among his previous positions he served as Director General of the Swedish Bank Support Authority; Undersecretary at the Swedish Ministry of Finance; Member of the Executive Boards of the National Debt Office, the Stockholm Stock Exchange, and the National Center Securities Depository Company. He also served on various committees including as a member of the G-10 Deputies, the BIS Eurocurrency Committee, and the EU Commission's Banking Advisory Committee.
Session 5: Strategies for Development
Chairperson: Abbas Mirakhor, Executive Director, IMF. Mr. Mirakhor was born in Tehran, Iran in 1941. He received his Ph.D. (1969) in Economics from Kansas State University. Before joining the IMF, he held various academic and administrative positions in the U.S. and in Iran. He was on the staff of the IMF from 1984-1990 before being elected in 1990 as Executive Director for the IMF, serving Algeria, Ghana, Iran, Morocco, Pakistan, and Tunisia.
"Culture, Democracy, and Development--the Impact of Formal and Informal Institutions on Development"
Author: Deepak Lal, is a James S. Coleman Professor of International Development Studies, University of California at Los Angeles, Professor Emeritus of Political Economy, University College London, and co-director of the Trade and Development Unit at the Institute of Economic Affairs, London. During 1983-84 he was an Economic Advisor to the World Bank, and then Research Administrator (1984-87) while on leave from University College, London. He has also served as a consultant to the ILO, UNCTAD, OECD, and UNIDO. Professor Lal is the author of numerous articles and books on economic development and public policy.
Discussant: Peter Montiel, Senior Policy Advisor, IMF Institute. Professor Montiel holds a Ph.D. from MIT. He is presently on sabbatical from Williams College where he is Professor of Economics, James Finney Baxter III Professor of Public Affairs. His specialty is open-economy macroeconomics. From 1991-96, he was a Danforth-Lewis Professor of Economics at Oberlin College. From 1994-95, he was Chief of the Macroeconomics and Growth Division of the Policy Research Department in the World Bank. His early career began at the IMF, where he worked in the Research Department and was Deputy Division Chief, Developing Country Studies Division. He has published extensively, including several books and papers on development economics."Fads and Fashion in Economic Reforms: Washington Consensus or Washington Confusion?"
Author: Moises Naim, Editor, Foreign Policy. Dr. Naim has written extensively on economic reforms, the political economy of international trade and investment, and on globalization. He is author or editor of five books and of numerous articles. He is a frequent news commentator for the major broadcasting companies in the U.S. and abroad. Previously he served as Venezuela's Minister of Trade and Industry. Prior to this he served as Professor and Dean at IESA, Venezuela's leading school of business. Between 1992 and 1996, he was the Director of Projects on Economic Reforms and on Latin America at the Carnegie Endowment. He also worked at the World Bank on two occasions, first as an Executive Director and later as Senior Adviser to the President. Dr. Naim holds Ph.D. and masters degrees from MIT.
Discussant: Ke-young Chu, Senior Advisor, Fiscal Affairs Department, IMF. Mr. Ke-young Chu, a Korean national, earned his Ph.D. in economics at Columbia University. He has worked in the Fund's Research and Fiscal Affairs Departments. His research interest is in public expenditure policy, social protection, and income distribution issues.
Chairperson: Mohsin S. Khan, Director, IMF Institute.
Faris Bingaradi, Director of Economic and Technical Department, Arab Monetary Fund. Mr. Bingaradi received his BA in Economics in 1971 from the American University in Cairo, and MA and Ph.D. in Economics from the University of California in Riverside in 1975 and 1977, respectively. He was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship in 1973. He joined the Arab Monetary Fund in March 1978 and has held the following positions: Chief of Trade Division (1987-90), Assistant Chief Executive for Technical Affairs in the Arab Trade financing Program (sister organization of the AMF) (1990-93). He has also served as Chairman of the Loan Committee in the AMF from 1997, and Chairman of the Credit Committee in ATFP from 1990.
Ricardo Hausmann, Chief Economist, Inter-American Development Bank. Previously Mr. Hausmann was Minister of Coordination and Planning of Venezuela and Chairman of the Joint Development Committee of the IMF and the World Bank. He was also a Director of the Board of the Venezuelan Central Bank. He is Professor of Economics at Venezuela's leading graduate school of business, IESA, where he founded the Center of Public Policy. He is a member of the standing committee of the Econometric Society and of the board of the Latin American and the Caribbean Association. His publications concern primarily macroeconomic adjustment, international finance, and fiscal policy.
Jungsoo Lee, Chief Economist, Asian Development Bank. Before joining the AsDB, Mr. Lee worked for the Bank of Korea in various positions: foreign exchange control department, business department, credit control department and research department. He was the Deputy Director of the Research Department when he joined the AsDB. He also worked for the Presidential Council for Economic Advisors in the Korean government. He started his career at the Asian Development Bank as an economist and worked mainly on foreign capital flows, external debt and financial sector issues. He has also published extensively in academic journals an various publication series. He has been the Chief Economist at the Asian Development Bank since January 1998 and has been working on issues related to the Asian financial crisis.
Ted Nkodo, Director of Central Operations, African Development Bank. Mr. Nkodo, a national of Cameroon, joined the African Development Bank in March 1997. Previously, he worked with the World Bank, where he was recruited in 1971 through the Young Professionals Program. From 1975-76, Mr. Nkodo was Advisor to an Executive Director, and from 1980, he held various managerial positions in the Economic Development Institute and in the Africa and Latin America Regional Offices.
Rolph van der Hoeven, Manager, Action Programme on Structural Adjustment, Employment and the Role of the Social Partners, Employment Strategy Department, International Labour Organization. Mr. van der Hoeven holds a Ph.D in Development Economics from the Free University in Amsterdam. Previously, he worked as Head, Employment Planning and Policies in the Labour Market Policies Branch at the ILO, Senior Economic Advisor to UNICEF in New York, and Economist at ILO's Employment Team in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Lusaka, Zambia. He also has been teaching at the Centre for Development Planning at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. He has served on a number of advisory boards, amongst others, the Social Dimension of Adjustment Programmes at the World Bank, the Joint Consultative Group on Policies of the 5 funding agencies of the UN, and the United Nations Staff College. He serves on the board and acts as referee to a number of professional journals and has authored numerous books and articles on employment, economic planning, basic needs, poverty and structural adjustment.