Public Information Notice: IMF Board Discusses Market Access for Developing Country Exports, September 27, 2002

Fund Support for Trade-Related Balance of Payments Adjustments
February 27, 2004

The IMF and the World Trade Organization
A Factsheet

Market Access for Developing Country Exports—Selected Issues

Prepared by the Staffs of the IMF and the World Bank
September 26, 2002

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Executive Summary

  1. Introduction

  2. Market Access Issues and Policy Implications: Overview
    1. Patterns of Protection
    2. Contingent Protection
    3. Standards and Nontariff Barriers to Trade
    4. Trade Preferences
    5. Policy Implications

  3. Market Access Issues in Agriculture
    1. Agriculture in the Multilateral Trading System
    2. Market Access, Agricultural Support, and Policy Trends in OECD Countries
    3. Agricultural Trade Policy in Non-OECD Countries
    4. Costs of Protection and Benefits of Liberalization
    5. Distributional Implications of Reform and Adjustment Needs
    6. Policy Implications

  4. Barriers to Trade in Textiles and Clothing
    1. Developing Country Exports of Textiles and Clothing
    2. Textiles and Clothing in the Multilateral Trading System
    3. Remaining Market Access Barriers to Exports of Textiles and Clothing
    4. The Cost of Barriers and Benefits of Liberalization
    5. Adjustment Needs Following Liberalization
    6. Policy Implications

  5. Conclusions


  1. Quad Countries: Trends in Trade-Distorting Agricultural Supports, 1986–88 to 1999–2001
  2. Exports of Textiles and Clothing by Region, 1965–98

Text Tables

  1. Effective Ad Valorem Tariff Equivalents on Bilateral Trade Flows
  2. Initiations of Antidumping Investigations, 1995–2001
  3. Summary Indicators of Agricultural Support, 2001
  4. MFN Tariff Peaks in Developed Country Markets on Agricultural Imports from Developing Countries, 1998–99
  5. Costs of Agricultural Distortions, 1997
  6. Exports of Textiles and Clothing, 2001
  7. Export Tax Equivalents of MFA Quotas and Tariffs on Textile and Clothing Imports in Quad Countries, 1997
  8. Number of Quotas Eliminated by Integration in ATC Stages 1 and 2
  9. Income and Export Revenue Losses Due to MFA Quotas and T&C Tariffs

Text Boxes

  1. Market Access at a Glance
  2. Technical Standards and Barriers to Trade
  3. Uruguay Round Principal Commitments on Agriculture
  4. Barriers to Brazilian and Argentine Agricultural Exports
  5. Main Features of the U.S. Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002
  6. The EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Reform Proposals
  7. The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
  8. Labor Standards and Cambodia's Exports of Textiles and Clothing