RWANDA: Primary Income: Compensation of Employees for Informal Workers


In Rwanda, we conduct survey on compensation of employees for informal workers that cross our borders to work in neighboring countries or non-residents coming to work in Rwanda.

In this survey, we include seasonal or other short-term workers (less than one year) and border workers who are residents of one economy and work in another economy. We target non-resident and resident cross-border workers, seasonal and other short-term workers. These are the people who work in a country which is different to the one in which they are resident. The income from border, seasonal, and other short-term workers’ resident in one economy paid by an employer resident in another economy that are in an employer-employee relationship.

Scope, Methodology, Compilation Practices, and Data Sources

Legal framework

The survey is carried out by the National Bank of Rwanda in partnership with the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR).


The survey covers 17 official borders (borders with migration officers) and 39 major crossing points (borders with no presence of migration officers) around the country.


The compensation of employees’ survey on informal cross border workers started in 2017 and data are collected on quarterly basis. On the field, we recruit enumerators and train them on how to use Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro) - Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) questionnaires and subsequently deploy them to the field. The compensation data are collected and transmitted to the bank server on real-time.

Compilation practices

At the end of the quarter data are aggregated and are used to compile income debits and credits.

Data sources

The data are collected from people crossing the borders to work in other countries or non-residents coming to work in Rwanda.




1. The questions are asked to a resident employed in other country and non-resident employed in Rwanda.

2. Only record income earned from the country of work and expenditure in the same country, excluding all income and expenses in their countries of residence.

Q1. Where is your home place? |__|

1. Burundi

2. DRC

3. Rwanda

4. Tanzania

5. Uganda

Q2. The country of employment? |__|

1. Burundi

2. DRC

3. Rwanda

4. Tanzania

5. Uganda

Q3. Ask the type of work |__|

1. Employee (Ukorera abandi)

2. Self – employed (Arikorera)

3. Seasonal worker

4. Other Cross-border worker – please specify

Q4. What is your income for the last quarter? |__|__|__|__|__|__|__|__|

Q6. Would you tell us/estimate how much you spent where you work in the last quarter?