Economic Effects and Structural Determinants of Capital Controls


Vittorio Grilli ; Gian M Milesi-Ferretti

Publication Date:

March 1, 1995

Disclaimer: This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF.The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate


This paper studies determinants and effects of capital controls using a panel of 61 developed and developing countries. The results suggest that capital account restrictions are more likely to be in place in countries with low income, a large share of government, and where the central bank is not independent. Other determinants of controls include the exchange rate regime, current account imbalances and the degree of openness of the economy. We also find that capital controls and other foreign exchange restrictions are associated with higher inflation and lower real interest rates. We do not find any robust correlation between our measures of controls and the rate of growth, although there is evidence that countries with large black market premia grow more slowly.


Working Paper No. 1995/031



Study based on a panel of 61 developing and developed countries. Also published in Staff Papers, Vol. 42, No. 3, September 1995.


Publication Date:

March 1, 1995



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