How Inclusive Is Abenomics?


Chie Aoyagi ; Giovanni Ganelli ; Kentaro Murayama

Publication Date:

March 13, 2015

Electronic Access:

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Disclaimer: This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF.The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate


We assess the ongoing reform efforts in Japan in terms of inclusive growth. We use prefectural level panel data to regress a measure of inclusive growth, which incorporates both average income growth and income inequality, on macroeconomic and policy variables. Our analysis suggests that achieving the Bank of Japan’s 2 percent inflation target has a positive effect on average income growth, but an adverse effect on income equality. The package of structural reforms planned under Abenomics is found to be effective in increasing both average income growth and income equality. The main policy implication of our analysis is that full implementation of structural reforms– especially labor market reforms–is necessary to both foster growth and increase equality.


Working Paper No. 2015/054



Publication Date:

March 13, 2015



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