Foreign Exchange Intervention: A Dataset of Public Data and Proxies


Gustavo Adler ; Kyun Suk Chang ; Rui Mano ; Yuting Shao

Publication Date:

February 19, 2021

Electronic Access:

Free Download. Use the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this PDF file

Link to data for this title

Disclaimer: IMF Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to encourage debate. The views expressed in IMF Working Papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management.


A better understanding of foreign exchange intervention (FXI) is often hindered by the lack of data. This paper provides a new dataset of FXI covering a large number of countries since 2000 at monthly and quarterly frequencies. It includes published official data for about 40 countries as well as carefully constructed estimates for 122 countries. Estimates account for a wide range of central bank operations, including both spot and derivative transactions. These estimates improve upon traditional proxies based on changes in reserves, by adjusting for valuation changes, income flows, and changes in other foreign-currency balance sheet positions (both vis-à-vis residents and non-residents)—the first estimates to do the latter to our knowledge—thus providing a more accurate measure of operations that change the central bank’s foreign currency position. The dataset also provides a classification of FXI operations into sterilized or not sterilized, a key dimension for economic analysis. Finally, the paper discusses the merits of the new estimates relative to traditional proxies, and presents stylized facts. The dataset is updated regularly. Data available through the link above.


Working Paper No. 2021/047





Publication Date:

February 19, 2021



Stock No:






Please address any questions about this title to