Financial technology—fintech—opens opportunities to boost economic growth, especially for financial inclusion, but policymakers must also address the risks. Read the latest IMF research on these issues, including the future of digital currencies.

Fintech Notes

Fintech Notes offer practical advice from IMF staff members to policymakers on important issues. The views expressed in Fintech Notes are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management. 


Top 10 Blogs of 2023 Unpack Global Economy, Inflation, Debt, Trade and Asia
December 27, 2023

Prospects for growth, prices and interest rates enjoyed the greatest reader interest, followed by fossil fuel subsidies and the implications of geoeconomic fragmentation

Central Bank Digital Currency Development Enters the Next Phase
November 20, 2023

Many of the world’s monetary authorities are seeking more guidance on how best to pursue digital forms of central bank money

Crypto Needs Comprehensive Policies to Protect Economies and Investors
July 18, 2023

Establishing effective policies has become a priority for authorities amid the failure of some exchanges and collapse of certain crypto assets

Crypto Poses Significant Tax Problems—and They Could Get Worse
July 5, 2023

Tax systems need updating to cope with crypto assets, whose anonymity and decentralized nature poses challenges—not least for the value added tax.


The Digital Finance Voyage: A Case for Public Sector Involvement
November 15, 2023

A keynote address by the IMF Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva at the 2023 Singapore Fintech Festival.

Measuring Money in the Digital Age - Setting the Stage
November 15, 2023

As digitalization continues to impact the future of money and the exchange of value, effective policy and regulation are needed to ensure a stable and equitable financial system.

Remittances: Has Fintech Lived Up To Expectations?
November 14, 2023

A panel discussion on whether fintech has lived up to its expectations as a disruptor to the financial system.

IMF Seminar: Financial Inclusion as a Pathway to Resilient and Shared Growth
October 14, 2023

This event delves into the transformative power of broader financial access, exploring its links to macroeconomic and financial stability and growth. Embracing cutting-edge technologies, policymakers are poised to develop inclusive solutions.

Roundtable on Regulation and Supervision of Crypto Assets
December 9, 2022

A discussion on policy recommendations for advanced and emerging economies to help address the vulnerable aspects of the crypto assets market—so that countries can continue to benefit from the digitalization of financial services.

What Are Stablecoins?
September 1, 2022

Our Back to Basics video explains what are stablecoins and the risks they pose.


Jookyung Ree on the eNaira, One Year After
July 20, 2023

Nigeria’s eNaira was the first Central Bank Digital Currency in Africa and only the second in the world when it launched in October 2021, but a growing number of countries across the globe are now planning to follow suit with their own CBDCs. What can they learn from Nigeria’s experience? Jookyung Ree is an economist in the IMF African Department and assigned to Nigeria when the CBDC was introduced. Ree has since studied its impact on the economy and found that existing mobile money networks are proving a challenge to the eNaira’s adoptability. In this podcast, Ree says the eNaira will need to complement mobile money systems to convince more Nigerians to use it.  Transcript

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Ruud De Mooij on Taxing Crypto
July 6, 2023

Since their inception in 2008, the contentious rise of crypto assets has been dramatic. Their market value has been as high as $3 trillion and about $50 million is transacted in crypto every day. But what does this brave new world of cryptographically-protected distributed ledgers mean for traditional tax systems? Ruud De Mooij is Deputy Director of the IMF Fiscal Affairs Department and heads its work on taxation. In this podcast, De Mooij says finding ways to tax crypto will mean significant revenue gains for governments and lead to a fairer global tax system. Transcript

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Michele Ruta on Discriminatory Regionalism
June 1, 2023

As rising geopolitical tensions chip away at globalization, will a more fragmented world mean stronger regional pacts? Economist Michele Ruta says regionalism in a time of conflict is unlikely to triumph, but rather is likely to change. The trend toward strengthening ties with friends and loosening them with non-friends is making regional trade less about integration and more about discrimination. Transcript

Read the article in the IMF's Finance & Development Magazine

Ruchir Agarwal on Industrial Policy
May 22, 2023

Industrial policy refers to a set of policies that governments use to bolster national industries or companies deemed strategically important for economic competitiveness, social outcomes, or national security. The approach has been used in many countries to create global giants like Huawei, General Electric, Volkswagen, and Airbus to name a few. Economist Ruchir Agarwal is currently studying industrial policy, among other things, at the Yale School of Management and Harvard Kennedy School. In this podcast, Agarwal says while the practice of choosing national champions fell out of favor in the 1980s, rising geopolitical tensions of late have sparked a renewed interest in industrial policy, which can be a guise for protectionism.  Transcript

Read the article in Finance and Development Magazine