Regional Reports and Blogs




October 2022

Europe was on its way to exit the pandemic at the end of 2021, with a broadly appropriate policy mix that supported a handover from public to private sector–led growth, while rising inflation was expected to subside as commodity prices and supply chain disruptions would ease. Russia’s war in Ukraine and its fallout changed this picture completely. Europe has been hit by a massive terms-of-trade shock that has weakened the growth outlook, further raised the level and persistence of inflation, and led to a cost-of-living crisis that threatens social cohesion. Furthermore, risks of medium-term output scarring, which was successfully avoided in the pandemic, are resurfacing. Risks to growth are on the downside, while those to inflation are on the upside, as epitomized by the energy crisis, which is fostering unusually high uncertainty and steep policy trade-offs. Policymakers will need to walk a fine line between tightening policy stances to bring down inflation and supporting vulnerable households and viable firms through the energy crisis, while standing ready to adjust the policy mix should additional shocks materialize.

Download the Full Report  

Blog: Europe Must Address a Toxic Mix of High Inflation and Flagging Growth


IMF Blogs - Europe

Euro Area Reports

Euro Area Policies: 2021 Article IV Consultation with Member Countries on Common Euro Area Policies (February 7, 2022)

Biases in Survey Inflation Expectations: Evidence from the Euro Area (September 30, 2022)

U.S. and Euro Area Monetary and Fiscal Interactions During the Pandemic: A Structural Analysis (November 11, 2022)

A Bottom-Up Reduced Form Phillips Curve for the Euro Area (December 16, 2022)


Learn more

Social Media