Research and Publications

Stress Testing the Global Economy to Climate Change-Related Shocks in Large and Interconnected Economies (September 16, 2022)
Rationalizing Pharmaceutical Spending (September 16, 2022)
Private Savings and COVID-19 in Sub-Saharan Africa (September 9, 2022)
Waiting for Godot? The Case for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Small Island States ( (September 9, 2022)
Debt-for-Climate Swaps: Analysis, Design, and Implementation ( (August 12, 2022)
Economic Growth After Debt Surges (July 29, 2022)
Staple Food Prices in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Empirical Assessment (July 8, 2022)
Income Convergence or Divergence in the Aftermath of the COVID-19 Shock? (June 17, 2022)
Fiscal Decentralization Improves Social Outcomes When Countries Have Good Governance (June 3, 2022)
Seven Finance & Trade Lessons from COVID-19 for Future Pandemics (May 20, 2022)
Public Debt and Real GDP: Revisiting the Impact (April 29, 2022)
A Global Strategy to Manage the Long-Term Risks of COVID-19 (April 5, 2022)

Household Vulnerability to Income Shocks in Emerging and Developing Asia: the Case of Cambodia, Nepal and Vietnam (April 1, 2022)

Monetary Policy in Disaster-Prone Developing Countries (April 1, 2022)

Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa Fragile States: Evidence from Panel Estimations (March 18, 2022)

Loss-of-Learning and the Post-Covid Recovery in Low-Income Countries ( (February 4, 2022)
Monetary Policy Frameworks: An Index and New Evidence (January 28, 2022)

Progress of the Personal Income Tax in Emerging and Developing Countries (January 28, 2022)

Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Councils: Recent Trends and Performance during the COVID-19 Pandemic (January 27, 2022)
The 'Fiscal Presource Curse': Giant Discoveries and Debt Sustainability (January 21, 2022)
Tax Policy for Inclusive Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean (January 21, 2022)
Successful Transitions from Public to Private-Sector Led Growth: Lessons for Benin (December 3, 2021)
The Heavy Economic Toll of Gender-based Violence: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa (November 19, 2021)
Macrofinancial Causes of Optimism in Growth Forecasts (November 12, 2021)
The Distributional Implications of the Impact of Fuel Price Increases on Inflation (November 12, 2021)
Epidemics, Gender, and Human Capital in Developing Countries (November 5, 2021)

Recovery During A Pandemic (October 12, 2021)   

Tax Avoidance in Sub-Saharan Africa’s Mining Sector(September 28, 2021)

Opening Up: Capital Flows and Financial Sector Dynamics in Low-Income Developing Countries (September 24, 2021)

Growth at Risk from Natural Disasters (September 17, 2021)

Debt Dynamics in Emerging and Developing Economies: Is R-G a Red Herring? (September 7, 2021)

Diversion of Tourism Flows in the Asia & Pacific Region: Lessons for COVID-19 Recovery (August 20, 2021)

Climate Change in South Asia: Further Need for Mitigation and Adaptation (August 20, 2021)

Tracking Trade from Space: An Application to Pacific Island Countries (August 20, 2021)

Intergenerational Social Mobility in Africa Since 1920 (August 6, 2021)
An Evaluation of World Economic Outlook Growth Forecasts, 2004–17 (August 6, 2021)
After-Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prospects for Medium-Term Economic Damage (July 30, 2021)
Effects of COVID-19 on Regional and Gender Equality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigeria and Ethiopia (June 18, 2021)
Technological Progress, Artificial Intelligence, and Inclusive Growth (June 11, 2021)
Is Digital Financial Inclusion Unlocking Growth? (June 11, 2021)
How to Gain the Most from Structural Conditionality of IMF-Supported Programs (May 13, 2021)
The Direct Employment Impact of Public Investment (May 7, 2021)
Determinants of and Prospects for Market Access in Frontier Economies (May 7, 2021)
Public Expenditure and Inclusive Growth - A Survey (March 19, 2021)
Pricing Protest: The Response of Financial Markets to Social Unrest (March 19, 2021)
Gender Equality and Inclusive Growth (March 4, 2021)
Food Price Shocks and Household Consumption in Developing Countries: The Role of Fiscal Policy (January 15, 2021)
The Role of E-Government in Promoting Foreign Direct Investment Inflows (January 15, 2021)
Predicting Macroeconomic and Macro-financial Stress in Low-Income Countries (December 18, 2020)
What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Output Gaps? (November 20, 2020)
Energy, Efficiency Gains and Economic Development: When Will Global Energy Demand Saturate? (November 20, 2020)
Imported Food Price Shocks and Socio-Political Instability: Do Fiscal Policy and Remittances Matter? (November 13, 2020)
Protecting Lives and Livelihoods with Early and Tight Lockdowns (November 8, 2020)
The Economic Consequences of Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa (October 30, 2020)
COVID-19 and Inequality in Asia: Breaking the Vicious Cycle (October 16, 2020)
To Pass (or Not to Pass) Through International Fuel Price Changes to Domestic Fuel Prices in Developing Countries: What Are the Drivers? (September 25, 2020)
Socio-Economic Spillovers from Special Economic Zones: Evidence from Cambodia (August 21, 2020)
A Framework for Estimating Health Spending in Response to COVID-19 (July 24, 2020)
Do Monetary Policy Frameworks Matter in Low Income Countries? (July 24, 2020)
International Trade and Corporate Market Power (July 17, 2020)
Regional Economic Outlook Update: Middle East and Central Asia (July 13, 2020)
Regional Economic Outlook for Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cautious Reopening (June 29, 2020)
Nigeria: Additional Spending Toward Sustainable Development Goals-Technical Assistance Report (June 15, 2020)
Fiscal Monitor, April 2020: Chapter 1: Policies to Support People During the COVID-19 Pandemic (April 15, 2020)
Women in the Labor Force : The Role of Fiscal Policies 
Exploring the Output Effect of Fiscal Policy Shocks in Low Income Countries (January 17, 2020)
A Monthly Indicator of Economic Growth for Low Income Countries (January 17, 2020)
Bridging the Mobile Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa: Costing under Demographic Change and Urbanization (November 15, 2019) 
Macroeconomic Outcomes in Disaster-Prone Countries (October 11, 2019)
Long-Term Macroeconomic Effects of Climate Change: A Cross-Country Analysis (October 11, 2019)
Fiscal Monitor, October 2019 : How to Mitigate Climate Change (October 9, 2019)
Multiple Dimensions of Human Development Index and Public Social Spending for Sustainable Development  (September 26, 2019)
A Guide to Sovereign Debt Data (September 13, 2019)
Weather Shocks and Output in Low-Income Countries: The Role of Policies and Adaptation (August 16, 2019)
Macroeconomic Outcomes in Disaster-Prone Countries (October 11, 2019)
Long-Term Macroeconomic Effects of Climate Change: A Cross-Country Analysis (October 11, 2019)
Fiscal Monitor, October 2019 : How to Mitigate Climate Change (October 10, 2019)
Export Diversification in Low-Income Countries and Small States: Do Country Size and Income Level Matter? (May 24, 2019)
Tax Revenue Mobilization Episodes in Emerging Markets and Low-Income Countries: Lessons from a New Dataset (September 13, 2018)
Predicting Fiscal Crises (August 3, 2018)
Commodity Price Movements and Banking Crises
The Macroeconomic and Distributional Implications of Fiscal Consolidations in Low-income Countries (June 13, 2018)
Are Remittances Good for Labor Markets in LICs, MICs and Fragile States? (May 8, 2018)
Regional Economic Outlook: Asia Pacific (April 16, 2018)
Economic Fluctuations in Sub-Saharan Africa (March 5, 2018)
Inequality in Financial Inclusion and Income Inequality (November 8, 2017)
Trends and Challenges in Infrastructure Investment in Low-Income Developing Countries (November 7, 2017)
Regional Economic Outlook: Fiscal Adjustment and Economic Diversification (October 19, 2017)
Regional Economic Outlook Update - Latin America and the Caribbean (October 11, 2017)
Regional Economic Outlook: Asia Pacific, October 2017: Making the Most of the Upswing (October 9, 2017)
Can They Do It All? Fiscal Space in Low-Income Countries (May 5, 2017)
Challenges in Correspondent Banking in the Small States of the Pacific (April 7, 2017)
Natural Disasters and Food Crises in Low-Income Countries: Macroeconomic Dimensions (December 31, 2016)
Financial Development, Inequality and Poverty: Some International Evidence (December 31, 2016)
The Welfare Multiplier of Public Infrastructure Investment (December 31, 2016)
VAR meets DSGE: Uncovering the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Low-Income Countries (April, 2016)
Reducing Informality (March 2015)
Sub-Saharan African Businesses Must Produce More Jobs to Fulfill the Region’s Promise(March 2015)
Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa(March 2014)
The Economic Impact of IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries(October 2013)
The Elusive Quest for Inclusive Growth: Growth, Poverty, and Inequality in Asia(June 26, 2013)
All Regional Economic Reports